The population of the Czech lands declined by a third. This divisiveness gave Spain the opportunity to send Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma with 20,000 well-trained troops into the Netherlands. 1522 to 1697, Peak of the Reformation & beginning of the Counter-Reformation (1545–1620), End of the Reformation & Counter-Reformation (1648), After the Edict of Fontainebleau (1685) expelled Huguenots from France, Religious situation in Europe, late 16th & early to mid 17th century, Rebellions of Anabaptists and other radicals, The Schmalkaldic Wars and other early conflicts, Religious situation pre- and post-European wars, Although the Italian Wars broke out in 1494, before the Reformation began in 1517, one of the peace conditions of the, Blok, P.J., History of the People of the Netherlands, New York, (1898), p. 42. By the end of the 16th century the Rhine lands and those of southern Germany remained largely Catholic, while Lutherans predominated in the north, and Calvinists dominated in west-central Germany, Switzerland, and the Netherlands. Merchants welcomed the "new" religion. On December 23, 1588, at the Château de Blois, Henry of Guise and his brother, the Cardinal de Guise, were lured into a trap and were murdered. The Roman Catholic church was viewed as an unyielding patriarch, and the pompous hierarchy of the Roman Catholic church was resented even though Catholicism had respect as an important social, moral, and political force. As Henry III had no son, under Salic Law, the next heir to the throne was the Calvinist Prince Henry of Navarre. General Information . William, who raised another army after a series of earlier defeats, again battled the Spanish without a single victory. 1 - The Cold War and the international history of the twentieth century By Odd Westad Edited by Melvyn P. Leffler , University of Virginia , Odd Arne Westad , London School of Economics and Political Science The Cold War is a war that occurred in the 22nd century, starting in October 2139 and ending sometime during or after 2147. Open war was avoided by means of a peace agreement (Erster Landfriede) that was not exactly favourable to the Catholic side, which had to dissolve its alliance with the Austrian Habsburgs. Meanwhile, the solidly Catholic people of Paris, under the influence of the Committee of Sixteen, were becoming dissatisfied with Henry III and his failure to defeat the Calvinists. 1 Whereas the war which the Jews made with the Romans hath been the greatest of all those, not only that have been in our times, but, in a manner, of those that ever were heard of; both of those wherein cities have fought against cities, or nations against nations; while some men who were not concerned i… [clarification needed][dubious – discuss] This was a step that the princes supporting Luther were not willing to countenance. A new Governor of the Netherlands followed. This paper attempts an examination of the 19th century civil wars in Yoruba land, focusing on some selected north-eastern Yoruba towns. The Duke of Guise had been highly popular in France, and the league declared open war against King Henry. There existed no true unity between Catholics, Calvinists, and Protestants against Alva. The conflicts culminated in the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648), which devastated Germany and killed one-third of its population, a mortality rate twice that of World War I. On 12 May 1588, a popular uprising raised barricades on the streets of Paris, and Henry III fled the city. they could often simultaneously be characterised as wars of succession), and financial interests. The Pilgrimage of Grace was a popular rising in Yorkshire in 1536–37 against Henry VIII's break with the Roman Catholic Church. On August 6, 1566, Philip signed a formal instrument declaring that his offer of pardon had been gotten from him against his will. Matthys identified Münster as the "New Jerusalem", and preparations were made to not only hold what had been gained, but to proceed from Münster toward the conquest of the world. In January, 1579, a group of Catholic nobles formed a League for the protection of their religion and property. 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