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Tổng hợp các khái niệm cần nắm về lĩnh vực Project Integration Management (Chapter 04) trong kỳ thi PMP

Chapter 04: Project Integration Management

Có 6 Quy trình trong Project integration management:

  1. Develop Project charter (Output: Project charter)
  2. Develop Project Management Plan (Output: Project management plan = Scope / Schedule / Cost baseline)
  3. Direct  and Manage Project work (Output: Deliverables + WPD (Work Performance Data))
  4. Monitor and Control Project work (Output: change requests + work performance report)
  5. Perform Integrated Change Control  (Output: Approved change request + change log)
  6. Close Project or phase (Output: Final products, services, OPA (Organizational Process Assets) updates)

  1. Dev Project Charter 4.1 (P): Developing a documentation that formally authorizes a project or a phase and documenting initial requirements that satisfy the project stakeholder’s needs and expectations. Project Charter will be created/issued by the Project Initiator/Sponsor. However, it is recommended that the PM participate in the development of the project charter, so Sponsor would delegate that duty to the PM, and only should be at a level to funding the project. Output: Project charter
  2. Project Statement of Work (SoW):
    • Business Needs: organization’s business need may be based on a Market demand. Organizational need, Customer request, legal requirement. Technological advance, Ecological impact, Social Need.
    • Product Scope Description: Narrative description of project’s products or services.
    • Strategic plan: organization’s strategic goals should be aligned with Strategic plan.
  3. Business Case (Contain Business need): Provide necessary information from a business standpoint to determine whether or not the project is worth the required investment. Typically business need and cost-benefit analysis are contained in the business case to justify the project and establish boundaries for the project.
  4. Project Charter (O): A document is issued by the Sponsor or PM that formally authorizes the existence of a project, and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.
  5. Develop Project Management Plan 4.2 (P): Documenting the actions necessary to define, prepare, integrate, and co-ordinate all subsidiary plans. A formal, approved document that defined how the project is executed, monitored and controlled and closed. It maybe a summary or detailed and maybe composed of one or more subsidiary management plans and other. Output: Project management plan = Scope + Schedule + Cost baseline
  6. Project Management Plan (O): A formal and Approved Document. Integrate and Consolidate alll the subsidiary management plans and baselines from the planning processes.
  7. Project Baselines = Performance Measurement Baselines = Scope Baseline + Schedule Baseline + Cost (performance) Baseline.
  8. Direct and Manage Project Work 4.3 (P): Performing the work defined in the project management plan to achieve the project’s objectives. Output: Deliverables + WPD (Work Performance Data)
    1. Create project deliverables
    2. Record project data: progress, status, time, cost, … of deliverables
    3. Build strategies and manage project team
    4. Keep eye on quality, seek for improvement.
    5. Manage risks and implement risk response activities.
    6. Manage Seller and supplier
    7. Communication and manage stakeholders. Periodically meet/report to internal/external stakeholders.
    8. Collect and document lesson learned.
    9. Look for change and manage change as early as possible, initiate CR if necessary.
    10. Implement approved CR.
  9. Approved CR (O): as output part of the Perform Integrated Change Control, a change control status update will indicate that some changes are approved and some are not. Approved CRs are scheduled for implementation by Project Team.
  10. Deliverables: An approved deliverable is any unique and verifiable product, result, or capability to perform a service that must be produced to complete a process, phase, project. Deliverables are typically tangible components completed to meet the project objectives.
  11. Work Performance Data: Are the raw observations and measurements identified during activities being performed to carry out the project work. Data are often viewed as the lowest level of detail from which information is derived by other processes. Data if gathered through work execution and passed to the controlling processes of each process are for further analysis. Eg: Work performance data = work completed, key performance indicators, technique performance measures, start and finish dates of schedule activities, number of CRs, number of defeats, actual costs, actual duration… => input to all control processes.
  12. Change Request (CR) (O): Changes to the project management plan can occur as work is Performed, comparing planned results to actual results, or any Request from Customer, or Sponsor. Changes may require implementation of Corrective action/Preventive Action/Defect repair.
  13. Monitor and Control Project Work 4.4 (P): Tracking, reviewing, and reporting the progress to meet the performance objectives defined in the Project Management Plan. Allow stakeholders to understand the current state of the project, the steps taken, and budget, schedule, and scope forecasts. Output: change requests + work performance report
  14. Perform Integrated Change Control 4.5 (P): Reviewing all CRs, looking for and evaluating any impacts, approving changes and managing changes to the deliverables, organizational process assets, project documents and the project management plan. Includes coordinating changes across the entire project. Output: Approved change request + change log.
  15. Configuration Management System: A subsystem of the overall PMIS, a collection of formal documented procedures used to apply technical and administrative direction and surveillance… to verify and ensure that they conform to requirements.
    • Identify and document functional and physical characteristics of a product, result, service.
    • Record and report each change and its implementation status
    • Support the audit of the products, results or components.
    • Including documentation, tracking systems, defined approval level.
  16. Work Authorization System: A subsystem of the overal PMIS, a collection of formal documented procedures  that defines how project work will be authorized (commited) to ensure that the work is done by the identified organization, at the right time, and in the proper sequence.
  17. Close Project Phase 4.6 (P): Finalizing all activities across all of the Project Management Process Group to formally complete the project or phase. It is used also for projects which are terminated before completion. Output: Final products / services + OPA (Organizational Process Assets) updates
  18. 2 Project Selection Methods:
    1. Benefit measurement methods (Comparative Approach):
      • Murder board (a panel of people who try to shoot down a new project idea)
      • Peer review
      • Scoring model
      • Economic Model
    2. Constrained optimization methods (Mathematical Approach):
      • Linear programming
      • Integer programming
      • Dynamic programming
      • Multi-objective programming
  19. Economic Models for Project Selection:
    1. NPV: The present value of the total benefits minus the costs over many time periods. Higher is better.
    2. IRR: Higher is better.
    3. Payback period:Number of years a company takes to get back the invested amount. Time periods to recover your investment. Shorter is better.
    4. B/C (Benefit/Cost) or BCR: select higher one.
  20. Opportunity Cost: Refers to the opportunity given up by selecting one project over another.
  21. Sunk Costs: Are expended costs. Be aware of that accounting standards say that sunk costs shoud NOT be considered when deciding whether to continue with a troubled project. Eg: You have a project with an initial budget of 1000$. You are halfway through the project and have spent 2000$. Do you consider the 1000$ over budget when determining whether to continue with the project? => No, the money spent is gone.
  22. Law of Diminishing Returns: the law states that adding more input (eg: programmers) will not produce a proportional increase in productivity (eg: module per hour). Eg: single programer may produce 1 module/hour. 2 programers may produce 1.75modules/h. 3 programers may produce 2.25modules/h.
  23. Depreciation: Equipment purchased by a company lose value over time. Accouting standards call this depreciation. You have only needed to know the following for exam:
    • Straight Line Depreciation: same amount of depreciation is taken each year.
    • Accelerated Depreciation: faster than straight line.

 


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