Nhóm công cụ quản lý dự án Seven Basic Quality Tools trong PMP là gì?
The seven basic quality tools, also known in the industry as 7 QC Tools, are used within the context of the PDCA Cycle to solve quality-related problems. The seven basic quality tools are:
1/ Cause-and-effect diagrams, which are also known as [wc_highlight color=”yellow”]fishbone diagrams or as Ishikawa diagrams[/wc_highlight]. The problem statement placed at the head of the fishbone is used as a starting point to trace the problem’s source back to its actionable root cause. The problem statement typically describes the problem as a gap to be closed or as an objective to be achieved. The causes are found by looking at the problem statement and asking “why” until the actionable root cause has been identified or until the reasonable possibilities on each fishbone have been exhausted. Fishbone diagrams often prove useful in linking the undesirable effects seen as special variation to the assignable cause upon which project teams should implement corrective actions to eliminate the special variation detected in a control chart. See more: Cause and effect diagrams
2/ Flowcharts, which are also referred to as [wc_highlight color=”yellow”]process maps[/wc_highlight] because they display the sequence of steps and the branching possibilities that exist for a process that transforms one or more inputs into one or more outputs. Flowcharts show the activities, decision points, branching loops, parallel paths, and the overall order of processing by mapping the operational details of procedures that exist within a horizontal value chain of a SIPOC model (Figure 8-6). Flowcharts may prove useful in understanding and estimating the cost of quality in a process. This is obtained by using the workflow branching logic and associated relative frequencies to estimate expected monetary value for the conformance and nonconformance work required to deliver the expected conforming output. See more: Flowcharts
3/ Checksheets, which are also known as [wc_highlight color=”yellow”]tally sheets[/wc_highlight] and may be used as a checklist when gathering data. Checksheets are used to organize facts in a manner that will facilitate the effective collection of useful data about a potential quality problem. They are especially [wc_highlight color=”yellow”]useful for gathering attributes data while performing inspections to identify defects[/wc_highlight]. For example, data about the frequencies or consequences of defects collected in checksheets are often displayed using Pareto diagrams.
4/ Pareto diagrams, exist as a special form of vertical bar chart and are used to identify the vital few sources that are responsible for causing most of a problem’s effects. The categories shown on the horizontal axis exist as a valid probability distribution that accounts for 100% of the possible observations. The relative frequencies of each specified cause listed on the horizontal axis decrease in magnitude until the default source named “other” accounts for any non-specified causes. Typically, the Pareto diagram will be organized into categories that measure either frequencies or consequences. See more: Pareto diagrams
5/ Histograms, are a special form of bar chart and are used to describe the central tendency, dispersion, and shape of a statistical distribution. Unlike the control chart, the histogram does not consider the influence of time on the variation that exists within a distribution. See more: Histograms
6/ Control charts, are used to determine whether or not a process is stable or has predictable performance. Upper and lower specification limits are based on requirements of the agreement. They reflect the maximum and minimum values allowed. There may be penalties associated with exceeding the specification limits. Upper and lower control limits are different from specification limits. The control limits are determined using standard statistical calculations and principles to ultimately establish the natural capability for a stable process. The project manager and appropriate stakeholders may use the statistically calculated control limits to identify the points at which corrective action will be taken to prevent unnatural performance. The corrective action typically seeks to maintain the natural stability of a stable and capable process. For repetitive processes, the control limits are generally set at ±3 s around a process mean that has been set at 0 s. A process is considered out of control when: (1) a data point exceeds a control limit; (2) seven consecutive plot points are above the mean; or (3) seven consecutive plot points are below the mean. Control charts can be used to monitor various types of output variables. Although used most frequently to track repetitive activities required for producing manufactured lots, control charts may also be used to monitor cost and schedule variances, volume, and frequency of scope changes, or other management results to help determine if the project management processes are in control. See more: Control charts
7/ Scatter diagrams, plot ordered pairs (X, Y) and are sometimes called correlation charts because they seek to explain a change in the dependent variable, Y, in relationship to a change observed in the corresponding independent variable, X. The direction of correlation may be proportional (positive correlation), inverse (negative correlation), or a pattern of correlation may not exist (zero correlation). If correlation can be established, a regression line can be calculated and used to estimate how a change to the independent variable will influence the value of the dependent variable. See more: Scatter Diagrams