Công cụ quản lý dự án Communication Methods ITTO trong PMP là gì?

There are several communication methods that are used to share information among project stakeholders. These methods are broadly classified as follows:

  • Interactive communication. Between two or more parties performing a multidirectional exchange of information in real time. It employs communications artifacts such as meetings, phone calls, instant messaging, some forms of social media, and videoconferencing.
  • Push communication. Sent or distributed directly to specific recipients who need to receive the information. This ensures that the information is distributed but does not ensure that it actually reached or was understood by the intended audience. Push communications artifacts include letters, memos, reports, emails, faxes, voice mails, blogs, and press releases.
  • Pull communication. Used for large complex information sets, or for large audiences, and requires the recipients to access content at their own discretion subject to security procedures. These methods include web portals, intranet sites, e-learning, lessons learned databases, or knowledge repositories.

Different approaches should be applied to meet the needs of the major forms of communication defined in the communications management plan:

  • Interpersonal communication. Information is exchanged between individuals, typically face-to-face.
  • Small group communication. Occurs within groups of around three to six people.
  • Public communication. A single speaker addressing a group of people.
  • Mass communication. There is a minimal connection between the person or group sending the message and the large, sometimes anonymous groups for whom the information is intended.
  • Networks and social computing communication. Supports emerging communication trends of many-to-many supported by social computing technology and media.

Possible communications artifacts and methods include but are not limited to:u Notice boards,

  • Newsletters/in-house magazines/e-magazines,u Letters to staff/volunteers,
  • Press releases,
  • Annual reports,
  • Emails and intranets,
  • Web portals and other information repositories (for pull communication)
  • Phone conversations,
  • Presentations,
  • Team briefings/group meetings,
  • Focus groups,
  • Face-to-face formal or informal meetings between various stakeholders,
  • Consultation groups or staff forums, and
  • Social computing technology and media.


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