Công cụ quản lý dự án Communication Models ITTO trong luyện thi PMP
Communication models can represent the communication process in its most basic linear form (sender and receiver), in a more interactive form that encompasses the additional element of feedback (sender, receiver, and feedback), or in a more complex model that incorporates the human elements of the sender(s) or receiver(s) and attempts to show the complexity of any communication that involves people.
Sample basic sender/receiver communication model. This model describes communication as a process and consists of two parties, defined as the sender and receiver. This model is concerned with ensuring that the message is delivered, rather than understood. The sequence of steps in a basic communication model is:
- Encode. The message is coded into symbols, such as text, sound or some other medium for transmission (sending).
- Transmit message. The message is sent via a communication channel. The transmission of this message may be compromised by various physical factors such as unfamiliar technology or inadequate infrastructure. Noise and other factors may be present and contribute to loss of information in transmission and/or reception of the message.
- Decode. The data received is translated by the receiver back into a form useful to the receiver.
Sample interactive communication model. This model also describes communication as a process consisting of two parties, the sender and receiver, but recognizes the need to ensure that the message has been understood. In this model, noise includes any interference or barriers that might compromise the understanding of the message, such as the distraction of the receiver, variations in the perceptions of receivers, or lack of appropriate knowledge or interest. The additional steps in an interactive communication model are:
- Acknowledge. Upon receipt of a message, the receiver may signal (acknowledge) receipt of the message, but this does not necessarily mean agreement with or comprehension of the message—merely that it has been received.
- Feedback/response. When the received message has been decoded and understood, the receiver encodes thoughts and ideas into a message and then transmits this message to the original sender. If the sender perceives that the feedback matches the original message, the communication has been successful. In communication between people, feedback can be achieved through active listening.
As part of the communication process, the sender is responsible for the transmission of the message, ensuring the information being communicated is clear and complete, and confirming the message is correctly interpreted. The receiver is responsible for ensuring that the information is received in its entirety, interpreted correctly, and acknowledged or responded to appropriately. These components take place in an environment where there will likely be noise and other barriers to effective communication
Cross-cultural communication presents challenges to ensuring that the meaning of the message has been understood. Differences in communication styles can arise from differences in working methods, age, nationality, professional discipline, ethnicity, race, or gender. People from different cultures communicate using different languages (e.g., technical design documents, different styles) and expect different processes and protocols.
The communication model incorporates the idea that the message itself and how it is transmitted are influenced by the sender’s current emotional state, knowledge, background, personality, culture, and biases. Similarly, the receiver’s emotional state knowledge, background, personality, culture, and biases will influence how the message is received and interpreted, and will contribute to the barriers or noise.
This communication model and its enhancements can assist in developing communication strategies and plans for person-to-person or even small group to small group communications. It is not useful for other communications artifacts such as emails, broadcast messages, or social media.
The communication models used to facilitate communications and the exchange of information may vary from project to project and also within different stages of the same project. A basic communication model, consists of two parties, defined as the sender and receiver. Medium is the technology medium and includes the mode of communication while noise includes any interference or barriers that might compromise the delivery of the message. The sequence of steps in a basic communication model is:
– Encode. Thoughts or ideas are translated (encoded) into language by the sender.
– Transmit Message. This information is then sent by the sender using communication channel (medium). The transmission of this message may be compromised by various factors (e.g., distance, unfamiliar technology, inadequate infrastructure, cultural difference, and lack of background information). These factors are collectively termed as noise.
– Decode. The message is translated by the receiver back into meaningful thoughts or ideas.
– Acknowledge. Upon receipt of a message, the receiver may signal (acknowledge) receipt of the message
but this does not necessarily mean agreement with or comprehension of the message.
– Feedback/Response. When the received message has been decoded and understood, the receiver encodes thoughts and ideas into a message and then transmits this message to the original sender.
The components of the basic communication model need to be considered when project communications are discussed. As part of the communications process, the sender is responsible for the transmission of the message, ensuring the information being communicated is clear and complete, and confirming the communication is correctly understood. The receiver is responsible for ensuring that the information is received in its entirety, understood correctly, and acknowledged or responded to appropriately.
There are many challenges in using these components to effectively communicate with project stakeholders, such as in a highly technical, multinational project team. Successful communication of a technical concept from one team member to another team member in a different country could involve encoding the message in the appropriate language, sending the message using a variety of technologies, and having the receiver decode the message into his or her native language and then reply or provide feedback. Any noise introduced along the way may compromise the original meaning of the message. In this example, there are multiple factors that may lead to the intended meaning of the message being misunderstood or misinterpreted.