Công cụ quản lý dự án Communication Models trong PMP là gì?
The communication models used to facilitate communications and the exchange of information may vary from project to project and also within different stages of the same project. A basic communication model, shown in Figure 10-4, consists of two parties, defined as the sender and receiver. Medium is the technology medium and includes the mode of communication while noise includes any interference or barriers that might compromise the delivery of the message. The sequence of steps in a basic communication model is:
– Encode. Thoughts or ideas are translated (encoded) into language by the sender.
– Transmit Message. This information is then sent by the sender using communication channel (medium). The transmission of this message may be compromised by various factors (e.g., distance, unfamiliar technology, inadequate infrastructure, cultural difference, and lack of background information). These factors are collectively termed as noise.
– Decode. The message is translated by the receiver back into meaningful thoughts or ideas.
– Acknowledge. Upon receipt of a message, the receiver may signal (acknowledge) receipt of the message
but this does not necessarily mean agreement with or comprehension of the message.
– Feedback/Response. When the received message has been decoded and understood, the receiver encodes thoughts and ideas into a message and then transmits this message to the original sender.
The components of the basic communication model need to be considered when project communications are discussed. As part of the communications process, the sender is responsible for the transmission of the message, ensuring the information being communicated is clear and complete, and confirming the communication is correctly understood. The receiver is responsible for ensuring that the information is received in its entirety, understood correctly, and acknowledged or responded to appropriately.
There are many challenges in using these components to effectively communicate with project stakeholders, such as in a highly technical, multinational project team. Successful communication of a technical concept from one team member to another team member in a different country could involve encoding the message in the appropriate language, sending the message using a variety of technologies, and having the receiver decode the message into his or her native language and then reply or provide feedback. Any noise introduced along the way may compromise the original meaning of the message. In this example, there are multiple factors that may lead to the intended meaning of the message being misunderstood or misinterpreted.