Tìm hiểu công cụ Data Analysis trong luyện thi PMP 

This group of techniques has been using in a lot of processes. This is also a new tools/techniques introduced in PMBOK v6.

Data analysis can be used include but not limited to:

  1. Alternatives analysis: Alternatives analysis is used to select the corrective actions or a combination of corrective and preventive actions to implement when a deviation occurs.
  2. Stakeholder engagement assessment matrix: can provide information about the effectiveness of the communications activities. This is achieved by reviewing changes between desired and current engagement and adjusting communications as necessary.
  3. Stakeholder analysis (Stakeholder): Stakeholder analysis results in a list of stakeholders and relevant information such as their positions in the organization, roles on the project, “stakes,” expectations, attitudes (their levels of support for the project), and their interest in information about the project. Stakeholders’ stakes can include but are not limited to a combination of:
    1. Interest. A person or group can be affected by a decision related to the project or its outcomes.
    2. Rights (legal or moral rights). Legal rights, such as occupational health and safety, may be defined in the legislation framework of a country. Moral rights may involve concepts of protection of historical sites or environmental sustainability.
    3. Ownership. A person or group has a legal title to an asset or a property.
    4. Knowledge. Specialist knowledge, which can benefit the project through more effective delivery of project objectives, organizational outcomes, or knowledge of the power structures of the organization.
    5. Contribution. Provision of funds or other resources, including human resources, or providing support for the project in more intangible ways, such as advocacy in the form of promoting the objectives of the project or acting as a buffer between the project and the power structures of the organization and its politics.
  4. Make or Buy analysis (Procurement): is used to determine whether work or deliverables can best be accomplished by the project team or should be purchased from outside sources. Factors to consider in the make-or-buy decision include the organization’s current resource allocation and their skills and abilities, the need for specialized expertise, the desire to not expand permanent employment obligations, and the need for independent expertise. It also includes evaluating the risks involved with each make-or-buy decision. Make-or-buy analysis may use payback period, return on investment (ROI), internal rate of return (IRR), discounted cash flow, net present value (NPV), benefit/cost analysis (BCA), or other techniques in order to decide whether to include something as part of the project or purchase it externally.
  5. Proposal evaluation (Procurement): Proposals are evaluated to ensure they are complete and respond in full to the bid documents, procurement statement of work, source selection criteria, and any other documents that went out in the bid package.
  6. Technical Perf analysis (Risk): Technical performance analysis compares technical accomplishments during project execution to the schedule of technical achievement. It requires the definition of objective, quantifiable measures of technical performance, which can be used to compare actual results against targets. Such technical performance measures may include weight, transaction times, number of delivered defects, storage capacity, etc. Deviation can indicate the potential impact of threats or opportunities.
  7. Reserve analysis (Risk): Throughout execution of the project, some individual project risks may occur with positive or negative impacts on budget or schedule contingency reserves. Reserve analysis compares the amount of the contingency reserves remaining to the amount of risk remaining at any time in the project in order to determine if the remaining reserve is adequate. This may be communicated using various graphical representations, including a burndown chart
  8. Assumption and constrain analysis: Every project and its project management plan are conceived and developed based on a set of assumptions and within a series of constraints. These are often already incorporated in the scope baseline and project estimates. Assumption and constraint analysis explores the validity of assumptions and constraints to determine which pose a risk to the project. Threats may be identified from the inaccuracy, instability, inconsistency, or incompleteness of assumptions. Constraints may give rise to opportunities through removing or relaxing a limiting factor that affects the execution of a project or process.
  9. Cost-benefit analysis: helps to determine the best corrective action in terms of cost in case of project deviations
  10. Earned value analysis: Earned value provides an integrated perspective on scope, schedule, and cost performance
  11. Root cause analysis: Root cause analysis focuses on identifying the main reasons of a problem. It can be used to identify the reasons for a deviation and the areas the project manager should focus on in order to achieve the objectives of the project
  12. SWOT analysis: This technique examines the project from each of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) perspectives. For risk identification, it is used to increase the breadth of identified risks by including internally generated risks. The technique starts with the identification of strengths and weaknesses of the organization, focusing on either the project, organization, or the business area in general. SWOT analysis then identifies any opportunities for the project that may arise from strengths, and any threats resulting from weaknesses. The analysis also examines the degree to which organizational strengths may offset threats and determines if weaknesses might hinder opportunities.
  13. Document analysis: Assessing the available project documentation and lessons learned from previous projects to identify stakeholders and other supporting information. Document analysis consists of reviewing and assessing any relevant documented information. In this process, document analysis is used to elicit requirements by analyzing existing documentation and identifying information relevant to the requirements. There is a wide range of documents that may be analyzed to help elicit relevant requirements. Examples of documents that may be analyzed include but are not limited to:
    1. Agreements;
    2. Business plans;
    3. Business process or interface documentation;
    4. Business rules repositories;
    5. Current process flows;
    6. Marketing literature;
    7. Problem/issue logs;
    8. Policies and procedures;
    9. Regulatory documentation such as laws, codes, or ordinances, etc.;u Requests for proposal; and
    10. Use cases
  14. Trend analysis: Trend analysis is used to forecast future performance based on past results. It looks ahead in the project for expected slippages and warns the project manager ahead of time that there may be problems later in the schedule if established trends persist. This information is made available early enough in the project timeline to give the project team time to analyze and correct any anomalies. The results of trend analysis can be used to recommend preventive actions if necessary.
  15. Variance analysis:  Variance analysis reviews the differences (or variance) between planned and actual performance. This can include duration estimates, cost estimates, resources utilization, resources rates, technical performance, and other metrics. Variance analysis may be conducted in each Knowledge Area based on its particular variables. In Monitor and Control Project Work, the variance analysis reviews the variances from an integrated perspective considering cost, time, technical, and resource variances in relation to each other to get an overall view of variance on the project. This allows for the appropriate preventive or corrective actions to be initiated.
  16. Risk data quality assessment: Risk data quality assessment evaluates the degree to which the data about individual project risks is accurate and reliable as a basis for qualitative risk analysis. The use of low-quality risk data may lead to a qualitative risk analysis that is of little use to the project. If data quality is unacceptable, it may be necessary to gather better data. Risk data quality may be assessed via a questionnaire measuring the project’s stakeholder perceptions of various characteristics, which may include completeness, objectivity, relevancy, and timeliness. A weighted average of selected data quality characteristics can then be generated to give an overall quality score.
  17. Risk probability and impact assessment: Risk probability assessment considers the likelihood that a specific risk will occur. Risk impact assessment considers the potential effect on one or more project objectives such as schedule, cost, quality, or performance. Impacts will be negative for threats and positive for opportunities. Probability and impact are assessed for each identified individual project risk. Risks can be assessed in interviews or meetings with participants selected for their familiarity with the types of risk recorded in the risk register. Project team members and knowledgeable persons external to the project are included. The level of probability for each risk and its impact on each objective are evaluated during the interview or meeting. Differences in the levels of probability and impact perceived by stakeholders are to be expected, and such differences should be explored. Explanatory detail, including assumptions justifying the levels assigned, are also recorded. Risk probabilities and impacts are assessed using the definitions given in the risk management plan (see Table 11-1). Risks with low probability and impact may be included within the risk register as part of a watch list for future monitoring.
  18. Assessment of other risk parameters: The project team may consider other characteristics of risk (in addition to probability and impact) when prioritizing individual project risks for further analysis and action. These characteristics may include but are not limited to:
    1. Urgency. The period of time within which a response to the risk is to be implemented in order to be effective. A short period indicates high urgency.
    2. Proximity. The period of time before the risk might have an impact on one or more project objectives. A short period indicates high proximity.
    3. Dormancy. The period of time that may elapse after a risk has occurred before its impact is discovered. A short period indicates low dormancy.
    4. Manageability. The ease with which the risk owner (or owning organization) can manage the occurrence or impact of a risk. Where management is easy, manageability is high.
    5. Controllability. The degree to which the risk owner (or owning organization) is able to control the risk’s outcome. Where the outcome can be easily controlled, controllability is high.
    6. Detectability. The ease with which the results of the risk occurring, or being about to occur, can be detected and recognized. Where the risk occurrence can be detected easily, detectability is high.
    7. Connectivity. The extent to which the risk is related to other individual project risks. Where a risk is connected to many other risks, connectivity is high.
    8. Strategic impact. The potential for the risk to have a positive or negative effect on the organization’s strategic goals. Where the risk has a major effect on strategic goals, strategic impact is high.
    9. Propinquity. The degree to which a risk is perceived to matter by one or more stakeholders. Where a risk is perceived as very significant, propinquity is high.
  19. Simulation (Risk): Quantitative risk analysis uses a model that simulates the combined effects of individual project risks and other sources of uncertainty to evaluate their potential impact on achieving project objectives. Simulations are typically performed using a Monte Carlo analysis. When running a Monte Carlo analysis for cost risk, the simulation uses the project cost estimates. When running a Monte Carlo analysis for schedule risk, the schedule network diagram and duration estimates are used. An integrated quantitative cost-schedule risk analysis uses both inputs. The output is a quantitative risk analysis model.
  20. Sensitivity analysis (Risk): Sensitivity analysis helps to determine which individual project risks or other sources of uncertainty have the most potential impact on project outcomes. It correlates variations in project outcomes with variations in elements of the quantitative risk analysis model. One typical display of sensitivity analysis is the tornado diagram, which presents the calculated correlation coefficient for each element of the quantitative risk analysis model that can influence the project outcome. This can include individual project risks, project activities with high degrees of variability, or specific sources of ambiguity. Items are ordered by descending strength of correlation, giving the typical tornado appearance.
  21. Decision tree analysis: Decision trees are used to support selection of the best of several alternative courses of action. Alternative paths through the project are shown in the decision tree using branches representing different decisions or events, each of which can have associated costs and related individual project risks (including both threats and opportunities). The end-points of branches in the decision tree represent the outcome from following that particular path, which can be negative or positive.
  22. Influence diagrams: Influence diagrams are graphical aids to decision making under uncertainty. An influence diagram represents a project or situation within the project as a set of entities, outcomes, and influences, together with the relationships and effects between them. Where an element in the influence diagram is uncertain as a result of the existence of individual project risks or other sources of uncertainty, this can be represented in the influence diagram using ranges or probability distributions. The influence diagram is then evaluated using a simulation technique, such as Monte Carlo analysis, to indicate which elements have the greatest influence on key outcomes. Outputs from an influence diagram are similar to other quantitative risk analysis methods, including S-curves and tornado diagrams.
  23. Cost of Quality (CoQ):

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