Tìm hiểu công cụ Data Gathering ITTO trong luyện thi PMP
Data-gathering techniques that can be used for this process include but are not limited to:
- Brainstorming. This technique is used to identify a list of ideas in a short period of time. It is conducted in a group environment and is led by a facilitator. Brainstorming comprises two parts: idea generation and analysis. Brainstorming can be used to gather data and solutions or ideas from stakeholders, subject matter experts, and team members when developing the project charter. The goal of brainstorming is to obtain a comprehensive list of individual project risks and sources of overall project risk. The project team usually performs brainstorming, often with a multidisciplinary set of experts who are not part of the team. Ideas are generated under the guidance of a facilitator, either in a free-form brainstorm session or one that uses more structured techniques. Categories of risk, such as in a risk breakdown structure, can be used as a framework. Particular attention should be paid to ensuring that risks identified through brainstorming are clearly described, since the technique can result in ideas that are not fully formed.
- Focus groups. Focus groups bring together stakeholders and subject matter experts to learn about the perceived project risk, success criteria, and other topics in a more conversational way than a one-on-one interview.
- Market Research (Procurement): Market research includes examination of industry and specific seller capabilities. Procurement teams may leverage information gained at conferences, online reviews, and a variety of sources to identify market capabilities. The team may also refine specific procurement objectives to leverage maturing technologies while balancing risks associated with the breadth of sellers who can provide the desired materials or services.
- Interviews. Interviews are used to obtain information on high-level requirements, assumptions or constraints, approval criteria, and other information from stakeholders by talking directly to them.
- Checklists:Checklists help in managing the control quality activities in a structured mannerMany organizations have standardized checklists available based in their own experience or use checklists from the industry. A checklist may guide the project manager to develop the plan or may help to verify that all the required information is included in the project management plan. A checklist is a list of items, actions, or points to be considered. It is often used as a reminder. Risk checklists are developed based on historical information and knowledge that has been accumulated from similar projects and from other sources of information. They are an effective way to capture lessons learned from similar completed projects, listing specific individual project risks that have occurred previously and that may be relevant to this project. The organization may maintain a risk checklist based on its own completed projects or may use generic risk checklists from the industry. While a checklist may be quick and simple to use, it is impossible to build an exhaustive one, and care should be taken to ensure the checklist is not used to avoid the effort of proper risk identification. The project team should also explore items that do not appear on the checklist. Additionally, the checklist should be reviewed from time to time to update new information as well as remove or archive obsolete information.
- Check sheets: Check sheets are also known as tally sheets and are used to organize facts in a manner that will facilitate the effective collection of useful data about a potential quality problem. They are especially useful for gathering attributes data while performing inspections to identify defects; for example, data about the frequencies or consequences of defects collected.
- Statistical sampling: Statistical sampling involves choosing part of a population of interest for inspection (for example, selecting 10 engineering drawings at random from a list of 75). The sample is taken to measure controls and verify quality. Sample frequency and sizes should be determined during the Plan Quality Management process.
- Questionnaires and Surveys: Surveys may be used to gather data about customer satisfaction after the deployment of the product or service. The cost regarding defects identified in the surveys may be considered external failure costs in the COQ model and can have extensive cost implications for the organization.
Check sheets example