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Tìm hiểu công cụ Data Representation ITTO trong luyện thi PMP

Data representation techniques that can be used for this process include but are not limited to:

  1. Affinity diagrams. Affinity diagrams allow large numbers of ideas to be classified into groups for review and analysis.
  2. Mind mapping. Mind mapping consolidates ideas created through individual brainstorming sessions into a single map to reflect commonality and differences in understanding and to generate new ideas.
  3. Cause and effect diagrams: Cause-and-effect diagrams are also known as fishbone diagrams, why-why diagrams, or Ishikawa diagrams. This type of diagram breaks down the causes of the problem statement identified into discrete branches, helping to identify the main or root cause of the problem.
  4. Control charts: Control charts are used to determine whether or not a process is stable or has predictable performance. Upper and lower specification limits are based on the requirements and reflect the maximum and minimum values allowed. Upper and lower control limits are different from specification limits. The control limits are determined using standard statistical calculations and principles to ultimately establish the natural capability for a stable process. The project manager and appropriate stakeholders may use the statistically calculated control limits to identify the points at which corrective action will be taken to prevent performance that remains outside the control limits. Control charts can be used to monitor various types of output variables. Although used most frequently to track repetitive activities required for producing manufactured lots, control charts may also be used to monitor cost and schedule variances, volume, frequency of scope changes, or other management results to help determine if the project management processes are in control.
  5. Flowcharts: Flowcharts show a series of steps that lead to a defect.
  6. Hierarchical charts (Plan RM): The traditional organizational chart structure can be used to show positions and relationships in a graphical, top-down format.
    1. Work breakdown structures (WBS). The WBS is designed to show how project deliverables are broken down into work packages and provide a way of showing high-level areas of responsibility.
    2. Organizational breakdown structure (OBS). While the WBS shows a breakdown of project deliverables, an OBS is arranged according to an organization’s existing departments, units, or teams, with the project activities or work packages listed under each department. An operational department, such as information technology or purchasing, can see all of its project responsibilities by looking at its portion of the OBS.
    3. Resource breakdown structure. The resource breakdown structure is a hierarchical list of team and physical resources related by category and resource type that is used for planning, managing and controlling project work. Each descending (lower) level represents an increasingly detailed description of the resource until the information is small enough to be used in conjunction with the work breakdown structure (WBS) to allow the work to be planned, monitored, and controlled
  7. Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) (Plan RM): A RAM shows the project resources assigned to each work package. It is used to illustrate the connections between work packages, or activities, and project team members. On larger projects, RAMs can be developed at various levels. For example, a high-level RAM can define the responsibilities of a project team, group, or unit within each component of the WBS. Lower-level RAMs are used within the group to designate roles, responsibilities, and levels of authority for specific activities. The matrix format shows all activities associated with one person and all people associated with one activity. This also ensures that there is only one person accountable for any one task to avoid confusion about who is ultimately in charge or has authority for the work. One example of a RAM is a RACI (responsible, accountable, consult, and inform) chart. The sample chart shows the work to be done in the left column as activities. The assigned resources can be shown as individuals or groups. The project manager can select other options, such as “lead” and “resource” designations, as appropriate for the project. A RACI chart is a useful tool to use to ensure clear assignment of roles and responsibilities when the team consists of internal and external resources.
  8. Stakeholder engagement assessment matrix: displays gaps between current and desired engagement levels of individual stakeholders, it can be further analyzed in this process to identify additional communication requirements (beyond the regular reports) as a method to close any engagement level gaps.
  9. Text Oriented formats (Plan RM): Team member responsibilities that require detailed descriptions can be specified in text- oriented formats. Usually in outline form, these documents provide information such as responsibilities, authority, competencies, and qualifications. The documents are known by various names including position descriptions and role-responsibility-authority forms. These documents can be used as templates for future projects, especially when the information is updated throughout the current project by applying lessons learned.
  10. Histograms: Histograms show a graphical representation of numerical data. Histograms can show the number of defects per deliverable, a ranking of the cause of defects, the number of times each process is noncompliant, or other representations of project or product defects. Histograms can demonstrate the number of defects by source or by component
  11. Matrix diagrams: The matrix diagram seeks to show the strength of relationships among factors, causes, and objectives that exist between the rows and columns that form the matrix.
  12. Scatter diagrams: A scatter diagram is a graph that shows the relationship between two variables. Scatter diagrams can demonstrate a relationship between any element of a process, environment, or activity on one axis and a quality defect on the other axis. Scatter diagrams can show the planned performance on one axis and the actual performance on the second axis.
  13. Probability and Impact Matrix (Risk): A probability and impact matrix is a grid for mapping the probability of each risk occurrence and its impact on project objectives if that risk occurs. This matrix specifies combinations of probability and impact that allow individual project risks to be divided into priority groups. Risks can be prioritized for further analysis and planning of risk responses based on their probability and impacts. The probability of occurrence for each individual project risk is assessed as well as its impact on one or more project objectives if it does occur, using definitions of probability and impact for the project as specified in the risk management plan. Individual project risks are assigned to a priority level based on the combination of their assessed probability and impact, using a probability and impact matrix. An organization can assess a risk separately for each objective (e.g., cost, time, and scope) by having a separate probability and impact matrix for each. Alternatively, it may develop ways to determine one overall priority level for each risk, either by combining assessments for different objectives, or by taking the highest priority level regardless of which objective is affected.
  14. Hierarchical charts (Risk): Where risks have been categorized using more than two parameters, the probability and impact matrix cannot be used and other graphical representations are required. For example, a bubble chart displays three dimensions of data, where each risk is plotted as a disk (bubble), and the three parameters are represented by the x-axis value, the y-axis value, and the bubble size. An example bubble chart, with detectability and proximity plotted on the x and y axes, and impact value represented by bubble size.
  15. Stakeholder mapping / representation (Stakeholder): Stakeholder mapping and representation is a method of categorizing stakeholders using various methods. Categorizing stakeholders assists the team in building relationships with the identified project stakeholders. Common methods include:
    1. Power/interest grid, power/influence grid, or impact/influence grid. Each of these techniques supports a grouping of stakeholders according to their level of authority (power), level of concern about the project’s outcomes (interest), ability to influence the outcomes of the project (influence), or ability to cause changes to the project’s planning or execution. These classification models are useful for small projects or for projects with simple relationships between stakeholders and the project, or within the stakeholder community itself.
    2. Stakeholder cube. This is a refinement of the grid models previously mentioned. This model combines the grid elements into a three-dimensional model that can be useful to project managers and teams in identifying and engaging their stakeholder community. It provides a model with multiple dimensions that improves the depiction of the stakeholder community as a multidimensional entity and assists with the development of communication strategies.
    3. Salience model. Describes classes of stakeholders based on assessments of their power (level of authority or ability to influence the outcomes of the project), urgency (need for immediate attention, either time-constrained or relating to the stakeholders’ high stake in the outcome), and legitimacy (their involvement is appropriate). There is an adaptation of the salience model that substitutes proximity for legitimacy (applying to the team and measuring their level of involvement with the work of the project). The salience model is useful for large complex communities of stakeholders or where there are complex networks of relationships within the community. It is also useful in determining the relative importance of the identified stakeholders.
    4. Directions of influence. Classifies stakeholders according to their influence on the work of the project or the project team itself. Stakeholders can be classified in the following ways:
      1. Upward (senior management of the performing organization or customer organization, sponsor, and steering committee),
      2. Downward (the team or specialists contributing knowledge or skills in a temporary capacity),
      3. Outward (stakeholder groups and their representatives outside the project team, such as suppliers, government departments, the public, end-users, and regulators), or
      4. Sideward (the peers of the project manager, such as other project managers or middle managers who are in competition for scarce project resources or who collaborate with the project manager in sharing resources or information).
    5. Prioritization. Prioritizing stakeholders may be necessary for projects with a large number of stakeholders, where the membership of the stakeholder community is changing frequently, or when the relationships between stakeholders and the project team or within the stakeholder community are complex.

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