Công cụ quản lý dự án Information Gathering Techniques trong PMP là gì?
Công cụ này sử dụng trong quy trình: 11.2
Info Gathering Techniques include:
- Root cause analysis
Before we go any further to discuss these techniques in detail, we need to know the participants, the “Who” part of these techniques. If you ask a project manager this question, his answer would most probably be “Everyone” and if so, his answer is almost correct. This is because the list of people who are involved in these information gathering activities include almost everyone that you can possibly think of. It includes:
- The Project Manager
- Project Team
- Risk Management Team (If a separate team exists for risk management)
- End Users
- [wc_highlight color=”yellow”]Subject Matter Experts [/wc_highlight]
- [wc_highlight color=”yellow”]Risk Management Experts[/wc_highlight]
- [wc_highlight color=”yellow”]Other Project Managers[/wc_highlight]
The people in points 7, 8 & 9 are usually not part of our team. An experienced project manager will identify such key people who can contribute greatly to the projects risk management effort and invite them for these activities to make use of their expertise and experience.
Examples of information gathering techniques used in identifying risks can include:
- Brainstorming – The goal of brainstorming is to obtain a [wc_highlight color=”red”]comprehensive list of project risks[/wc_highlight]. The project team usually performs brainstorming, often with a multidisciplinary set of experts who are not part of the team. Ideas about project risk are generated under the leadership of a facilitator, either in a traditional free-form brainstorm session or structured mass interviewing techniques. Categories of risk, such as in a [wc_highlight color=”red”]RBS, can be used as a framework[/wc_highlight]. Risks are then identified and categorized by type of risk and their definitions are refined.There are two ways in which these brainstorming sessions can be held:
- Large Group Technique – Here a large group gets together and it is a free for all kind of scenario.
- Nominal Group Technique – Here, smaller sessions are held first at different times and then the outputs are reviewed/discussed in a larger meeting.
- Delphi technique – The Delphi technique is a way to reach a consensus of experts. Project risk experts participate in this technique anonymously. A facilitator uses a questionnaire to solicit ideas about the important project risks. The responses are summarized and are then recirculated to the experts for further comment. Consensus may be reached in a few rounds of this process. The Delphi technique helps [wc_highlight color=”red”]reduce bias[/wc_highlight] in the data and keeps any one person from having undue influence on the outcome. See more: Delphi vs Brainstorming
- Interviewing – Interviewing experienced project participants, stakeholders, and [wc_highlight color=”red”]subject matter experts[/wc_highlight] helps to identify risks.An important point to note about this technique is that, this is one of the primary sources of risk identification data.
- Root cause analysis – Root-cause analysis is a specific technique used to identify a problem, discover the underlying causes that lead to it, and develop preventive action. This technique involves:
- Identifying an issue
- Determining the underlying cause (to figure out [wc_highlight color=”red”]why[/wc_highlight] it is happening) and
- Develop preventive measures (to ensure that it does not happen)