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Tìm hiểu Interpersonal & Team Skills ITTO trong luyện thi PMP

Interpersonal and team skills that can be used for this process include but are not limited to:

  • Active Listening: Techniques of active listening involve acknowledging, clarifying and confirming, understanding, and removing barriers that adversely affect comprehension
  • Conflict management: Conflict management can be used to help bring stakeholders into alignment on the objectives, success criteria, high-level requirements, project description, summary milestones, and other elements of the charter. The project manager needs to resolve conflicts in a timely manner and in a constructive way in order to achieve a high-performing team. See more detail: Conflict management ITTO
  • Influencing: An influencing skill used in this process is gathering relevant and critical information to address important issues and reach agreements while maintaining mutual trust. Because project managers often have little or no direct authority over team members in a matrix environment, their ability to influence stakeholders on a timely basis is critical to project success. Key influencing skills include:
    • Ability to be persuasive;
    • Clearly articulating points and positions;
    • High levels of active and effective listening skills;
    • Awareness of, and consideration for, the various perspectives in any situation; and
    • Gathering relevant information to address issues and reach agreements while maintaining mutual trust
  • Decision making – Decision making, in this context, involves the ability to negotiate and influence the organization and the project management team, rather than the set of tools described in the decision making tool set. Some guidelines for decision making include:
    • Focus on goals to be served,
    • Follow a decision-making process,
    • Study the environmental factors,
    • Analyze available information,
    • Stimulate team creativity, and
    • Account for risk.
  • Emotional Intelligence: Emotional intelligence is the ability to identify, assess, and manage the personal emotions of oneself and other people, as well as the collective emotions of groups of people. The team can use emotional intelligence to reduce tension and increase cooperation by identifying, assessing, and controlling the sentiments of project team members, anticipating their actions, acknowledging their concerns, and following up on their issues.
  • Leadership: Successful projects require leaders with strong leadership skills. Leadership is the ability to lead a team and inspire them to do their jobs well. It encompasses a wide range of skills, abilities and actions. Leadership is important through all phases of the project life cycle. There are multiple leadership theories defining leadership styles that should be used as needed for each situation or team. It is especially important to communicate the vision and inspire the project team to achieve high performance.
  • Motivation: Motivation is providing a reason for someone to act. Teams are motivated by empowering them to participate in decision making and encouraging them to work independently.
  • Nominal Group Technique: The nominal group technique enhances brainstorming with a voting process used to rank the most useful ideas for further brainstorming or for prioritization. The nominal group technique is a structured form of brainstorming consisting of four steps.
    • A question or problem is posed to the group. Each person silently generates and writes down their ideas.
    • The moderator writes down the ideas on a flip chart until all ideas are recorded.
    • Each recorded idea is discussed until all group members have a clear understanding.
    • Individuals vote privately to prioritize the ideas, usually using a scale of 1 – 5, with 1 being the lowest and 5 being the highest. Voting may take place in many rounds to reduce and focus in on ideas. After each round, the votes are tallied and the highest scoring ideas are selected.
  • Observation / Conversation: Observation and conversation provide a direct way of viewing individuals in their environment and how they perform their jobs or tasks and carry out processes. It is particularly helpful for detailed processes when the people who use the product have difficulty or are reluctant to articulate their requirements. Observation is also known as “job shadowing.” It is usually done externally by an observer viewing a business expert performing a job. It can also be done by a “participant observer” who actually performs a process or procedure to experience how it is done to uncover hidden requirements. Discussion and dialogue with the project team helps determine the most appropriate way to update and communicate project performance, and to respond to requests from stakeholders for information. Observation and conversation enables the project manager to identify issues within the team, conflicts between people, or individual performance issues.
  • Networking: Networking is interacting with others to exchange information and develop contacts. Networks provide project managers and their teams with access to informal organizations to solve problems, influence actions of their stakeholders, and increase stakeholder support for the work and outcomes of the project, thus improving performance.
  • Facilitation: Facilitation is the ability to effectively guide a group event to a successful decision, solution, or conclusion. A facilitator ensures that there is effective participation, that participants achieve a mutual understanding, that all contributions are considered, that conclusions or results have full buy-in according to the decision process established for the project, and that the actions and agreements achieved are appropriately dealt with afterward. Facilitation is used with focused sessions that bring key stakeholders together to define product requirements. Workshops can be used to quickly define cross-functional requirements and reconcile stakeholder differences. Because of their interactive group nature, well-facilitated sessions can build trust, foster relationships, and improve communication among the participants, which can lead to increased stakeholder consensus. In addition, issues can be discovered earlier and resolved more quickly than in individual sessions. Facilitation skills are used in the following situations, but are not limited to:
    • Joint application design/development (JAD). JAD sessions are used in the software development industry. These facilitated sessions focus on bringing business subject matter experts and the development team together to gather requirements and improve the software development process.
    • Quality function deployment (QFD). In the manufacturing industry, QFD is another facilitation technique that helps determine critical characteristics for new product development. QFD starts by collecting customer needs, also known as voice of the customer (VOC). These needs are then objectively sorted and prioritized, and goals are set for achieving them.
    • User stories. User stories, which are short, textual descriptions of required functionality, are often developed during a requirements workshop. User stories describe the stakeholder role, who benefits from the feature (role), what the stakeholder needs to accomplish (goal), and the benefit to the stakeholder (motivation)
  • Meeting management: Meeting management includes preparing the agenda, ensuring that a representative for each key stakeholder group is invited, and preparing and sending the follow-up minutes and actions. Meeting management is taking steps to ensure meetings meet their intended objectives effectively and efficiently. The following steps should be used for meeting planning:
    • Prepare and distribute the agenda stating the objectives of the meeting.
    • Ensure that the meetings start and finish at the published time.
    • Ensure the appropriate participants are invited and attend.
    • Stay on topic.
    • Manage expectations, issues, and conflicts during the meeting.
    • Record all actions and those who have been allocated the responsibility for completing the action
  • Communication styles assessment: A technique used to assess communication styles and identify the preferred communication method, format, and content for planned communication activities. Often used with unsupportive stakeholders, this assessment may follow a stakeholder engagement assessment to identify gaps in stakeholder engagement that require additional tailored communication activities and artifacts.
  • Political awareness: Political awareness helps the project manager to plan communications based on the project environment as well as the organization’s political environment. Political awareness concerns the recognition of power relationships, both formal and informal, and also the willingness to operate within these structures. An understanding of the strategies of the organization, knowing who wields power and influence in this arena, and developing an ability to communicate with these stakeholders are all aspects of political awareness.
  • Culture awareness: Cultural awareness is an understanding of the differences between individuals, groups, and organizations and adapting the project’s communication strategy in the context of these differences. This awareness and any consequent actions minimize misunderstandings and miscommunication that may result from cultural differences within the project’s stakeholder community. Cultural awareness and cultural sensitivity help the project manager to plan communications based on the cultural differences and requirements of stakeholders and team members
  • Negotiation (Acquire resources):Negotiation among team members is used to reach consensus on project needs. Negotiation can build trust and harmony among the team members. The project management team’s ability to influence others plays an important role in negotiating resource allocation, as does the politics of the organizations involved. For example, convincing a functional manager about the high visibility of the project may influence him or her to assign the best resources to this project over competing ones
    Many projects need to negotiate for required resources. The project management team may need to negotiate with:

    • Functional managers. Ensure that the project receives the best resources possible in the required timeframe and until their responsibilities are complete.
    • Other project management teams within the performing organization. Appropriately assign or share scarce or specialized resources.
    • External organizations and suppliers. Provide appropriate, scarce, specialized, qualified, certified, or other specific team or physical resources. Special consideration should be given to external negotiating policies, practices, processes, guidelines, legal, and other such criteria.
  • Team Building: Team building is conducting activities that enhance the team’s social relations and build a collaborative and cooperative working environment. Team building activities can vary from a 5-minute agenda item in a status review meeting to an offsite, professionally facilitated event designed to improve interpersonal relationships. The objective of team-building activities is to help individual team members work together effectively. Team-building strategies are particularly valuable when team members operate from remote locations without the benefit of face-to-face contact. Informal communication and activities can help in building trust and establishing good working relationships. While team building is essential during the initial stages of a project, it should be a continuous process. Changes in a project environment are inevitable, and to manage them effectively, a continuous or renewed team-building effort may be applied. The project manager should continually monitor team functionality and performance to determine if any actions are needed to prevent or correct various team problems.
See more: ITTO

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