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Tìm hiểu về OPA trong đề thi PMP

 

OPA (Organizational Process Assets) là một input phổ biến trong các quy trình quản lý dự án mà PMI đưa ra, nhưng ở mỗi input OPA (Organizational Process Assets) lại ở 1 dạng khác nhau, bài này hệ thống tất cả các OPA (Organizational Process Assets) trong mỗi quy trình quản lý dự án mà nó hiện hữu.

 

Xem thêm: OPA Updates

 

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. These process assets include formal and informal plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases, specific to and used by the performing organization. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational process assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.

 

OPA (Organizational Process Assets) có mặt (INPUT) ở các quy trình

  1. Project integration management (All): Develop project charter, Develop Project Management Plan, Direct & Manage project work, Monitor and control project work, Perform integrated change control, Close project or phase
  2. Project scope management: Plan Scope management, Define Scope, Create WBS (Work Breakdown Structure), Control scope
  3. Project Time management (All): Plan schedule management, Define activities, Sequence activities, Estimate activity resources, Estimate activity durations, Develop schedule, Control schedule
  4. Project cost management (All): Plan cost management, Estimate costs, Determine budget, Control costs
  5. Project quality management: Plan quality management, Control quality
  6. Project human resource management: Plan human resource management, Acquire project team, Manage project team.
  7. Project communications management (All): Plan communications management, Manage communications management, Control communications
  8. Project risk management: Plan risk management, Identify risks, Perform qualitative risk analysis, Perform quantitative risk analysis,
  9. Project procurement management: Plan procurement management, Conduct procurements
  10. Project stakeholder management: Identify stakeholders, Plan stakeholder management, Manage stakeholder engagement.

 


Project integration management


4.1 Develop project charter

  • Organizational standard processes, policies, and process definitions
  • Templates (e.g., project charter template), and
  • Historical information and lessons learned knowledge base (e.g., projects, records, and documents; all project closure information and documentation; information about both the results of previous project selection decisions and previous project performance information; and information from the risk management activity).

 


4.2 Develop Project Management Plan

  • Standardized guidelines, work instructions, proposal evaluation criteria, and performance measurement criteria;
  • Project management plan template, including:
    • Guidelines and criteria for tailoring the organization’s set of standard processes to satisfy the specific needs of the project, and
    • Project closure guidelines or requirements such as the product validation and acceptance criteria;
  • Change control procedures, including the steps by which official organization standards, policies, plans, and procedures, or any project documents will be modified and how any changes will be approved and validated;
  • Project files from previous projects (e.g., scope, cost, schedule and performance measurement baselines, project calendars, project schedule network diagrams, and risk registers,);
  • Historical information and lessons learned knowledge base; and
  • Configuration management knowledge base containing the versions and baselines of all official organization standards, policies, procedures, and any project documents.

 


4.3 Direct and Manage project work

  •  Standardized guidelines and work instructions;
  •  Communication requirements defining allowed communication media, record retention, and security requirements;
  •  Issue and defect management procedures defining issue and defect controls, issue and defect identification and resolution, and action item tracking;
  •  Process measurement database used to collect and make available measurement data on processes and products;
  •  Project files from previous projects (e.g., scope, cost, schedule, performance measurement baselines, project calendars, project schedule, network diagrams, risk registers, planned response actions, defined risk impact, and documented lessons learned); and
  •  Issue and defect management database(s) containing historical issue and defect status, control information, issue and defect resolution, and action item results.

 


4.4 Monitor and control project work

  •  Organizational communication requirements;
  •  Financial controls procedures (e.g., time reporting, required expenditure and disbursement reviews, accounting codes, and standard contract provisions);
  •  Issue and defect management procedures defining issue and defect controls, issue and defect identification, and resolution and action item tracking;
  •  Change control procedures, including those for scope, schedule, cost, and quality variances;
  •  Risk control procedures including risk categories, probability definition and impact, and probability and impact matrix;
  •  Process measurement database used to make available measurement data on processes and products; and
  •  Lessons learned database.

 


4.5 Perform integrated change control

  •  Change control procedures, including the steps by which official organization standards, policies, plans, and other project documents will be modified, and how any changes will be approved, validated, and implemented;
  •  Procedures for approving and issuing change authorizations;
  •  Process measurement database used to collect and make available measurement data on processes and products;
  •  Project documents (e.g., scope, cost,and schedule baselines, project calendars, project schedule network diagrams, risk registers, planned response actions, and defined risk impact); and
  •  Configuration management knowledge base containing the versions and baselines of all official organization standards, policies, procedures, and any project documents.

 


4.6 Close project or phase

  •  Project or phase closure guidelines or requirements (e.g., administrative procedures, project audits, project evaluations, and transition criteria); and
  •  Historical information and lessons learned knowledge base (e.g., project records and documents, all project closure information and documentation, information about both the results of previous project selection decisions and previous project performance information, and information from risk management activities).

 


Project scope management 


5.1 Plan scope management 

  • Policies and procedures, and
  • Historical information and lessons learned knowledge base.

 


5.3 Define scope

  • Policies, procedures, and templates for a project scope statement; Project files from previous projects; and
  • Lessons learned from previous phases or projects.

 


5.4 Create WBS (Work Breakdown Structure)

  • Policies, procedures, and templates for the WBS; Project files from previous projects; and
  • Lessons learned from previous projects.

 


5.6 Control Scope

  • Existing formal and informal scope, control-related policies, procedures, guidelines; and
  • Monitoring and reporting methods and templates to be used.

 


Project Time management 


6.1 Plan schedule management

  •  Monitoring and reporting tools to be used;
  •  Historical information;
  •  Schedule control tools;
  •  Existing formal and informal schedule control related policies, procedures, and guidelines;
  •  Templates;
  •  Project closure guidelines;
  •  Change control procedures; and
  •  Risk control procedures including risk categories, probability definition and impact, and probability and impact matrix.

 


6.2 Define activities

  •  Lessons learned knowledge base containing historical information regarding activity lists used by previous similar projects,
  •  Standardized processes,
  •  Templates that contain a standard activity list or a portion of an activity list from a previous project, and
  •  Existing formal and informal activity planning-related policies, procedures, and guidelines, such as the scheduling methodology, that are considered in developing the activity definitions.

 


6.3 Sequence activities

The organizational process assets that can influence the Sequence Activities process include, but are not limited to: project files from the corporate knowledge base used for scheduling methodology, existing formal and informal activity planning-related policies, procedures, and guidelines, such as the scheduling methodology that are considered in developing logical relationships, and templates that can be used to expedite the preparation of networks of project activities. Related activity attributes information in templates can also contain additional descriptive information useful in sequencing activities.

 


6.4 Estimate activity resources

  • Policies and procedures regarding staffing,
  • Policies and procedures relating to rental and purchase of supplies and equipment, and
  • Historical information regarding types of resources used for similar work on previous projects.

 


6.5 Estimate activity durations

  • Historical duration information,
  • Project calendars,
  • Scheduling methodology, and
  • Lessons learned.

 


6.6 Develop schedule

  • Scheduling methodology and
  • Project calendar(s).

 


6.7 Control schedule

  • Existing formal and informal schedule control-related policies, procedures, and guidelines;
  • Schedule control tools; and
  • Monitoring and reporting methods to be used.

 


Project cost management 


7.1 Plan cost management

  • Financial controls procedures (e.g., time reporting, required expenditure and disbursement reviews, accounting codes, and standard contract provisions);
  • Historical information and lessons learned knowledge bases;
  • Financial databases; and
  • Existing formal and informal cost estimating and budgeting-related policies, procedures, and guidelines.

 


7.2 Estimate costs

  • Cost estimating policies,
  • Cost estimating templates,
  • Historical information, and
  • Lessons learned.

 


7.3 Determine budget

  • Existing formal and informal cost budgeting-related policies, procedures, and guidelines;
  • Cost budgeting tools; and
  • Reporting methods.

 


7.4 Control costs

  • Existing formal and informal cost control-related policies, procedures, and guidelines;
  • Cost control tools; and
  • Monitoring and reporting methods to be used.

 


Project quality management


8.1 Plan quality management 

  • Organizational quality policies, procedures, and guidelines. The performing organization’s quality policy, as endorsed by senior management, sets the organization’s intended direction on implementing its quality management approach;
  • Historical databases; and
  • Lessons learned from previous phases or projects.

 


8.3 Control quality

  • The organization’s quality standards and policies,
  • Standard work guidelines, and
  • Issue and defect reporting procedures and communication policies.

 


Project human resource management


9.1 Plan human resource management 

  • Organizational standard processes, policies, and role descriptions;
  • Templates for organizational charts and position descriptions;
  • Lessons learned on organizational structures that have worked in previous projects; and
  • Escalation procedures for handling issues within the team and within the performing organization.

 


9.2 Acquire project team 

The organizational process assets that influence the Acquire Project Team process include, but are not limited to, organizational standard policies, processes, and procedures.

 


9.4 Manage project team 

  • Certificates of appreciation, Newsletters,
  • Websites,
  • Bonus structures,
  • Corporate apparel, and
  • Other organizational perquisites.

 


Project communications management


10.1 Plan communications management 

Lessons learned and historical information are of particular importance because they can provide insights on both the decisions taken regarding communications issues and the results of those decisions in previous similar projects. These can be used as guiding information to plan the communication activities for the current project.

 


10.2 Manage communications 

  • Policies, procedures, processes, and guidelines regarding communications management;
  • Templates; and
  • Historical information and lessons learned.

 


10.3 Control communications 

  • Report templates;
  • Policies, standards, and procedures that define communications; Specific communication technologies available;
  • Allowed communication media;
  • Record retention policies; and
  • Security requirements.

 


Project risk management


11.1 Plan risk management 

  • Risk categories,
  • Common definitions of concepts and terms, Risk statement formats,
  • Standard templates,
  • Roles and responsibilities,
  • Authority levels for decision making, and
  • Lessons learned.

 


11.2 Identify risks

  • Project files, including actual data,
  • Organizational and project process controls,
  • Risk statement formats or templates, and
  • Lessons learned.

 


11.3 Perform qualitative risk analysis

The organizational process assets that can influence the Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis process include information on prior, similar completed projects.

 


11.4 Perform quantitative risk analysis

The organizational process assets that can influence the Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis process include information from prior, similar completed projects.

 


Project procurement management


12.1 Plan procurement management 

The various types of contractual agreements used by the organization also influence decisions for the Plan Procurement Management process. The organizational process assets that influence the Plan Procurement Management process include, but are not limited to:

  •  Formal procurement policies, procedures, and guidelines. Most organizations have formal procurement policies and buying organizations. When such procurement support is not available, the project team should supply both the resources and the expertise to perform such procurement activities.
  •  Management systems that are considered in developing the procurement management plan and selecting the contractual relationships to be used.
  •  An established multi-tier supplier system of prequalified sellers based on prior experience.All legal contractual relationships generally fall into one of two broad families: either fixed-price or cost reimbursable. Also, there is a third hybrid type commonly in use called the time and materials contract. The more popular contract types in use are discussed below as discrete types, but in practice it is not unusual to combine one or more types into a single procurement.

Xem thêm Các loại procurement contract

 


12.2 Conduct procurements 

  • Listings of prospective and previously qualified sellers,
  • Information on relevant past experience with sellers, both good and bad, and
  • Prior agreements.

Whenever a prior agreement is in place, the buyer and seller roles will have already been decided by executive management. In some cases, the seller may already be working under a contract funded by the buyer or jointly by both parties. The effort of the buyer and seller in this process is to collectively prepare a procurement statement of work that will satisfy the requirements of the project. The parties will then negotiate a final contract for award.

 


Project stakeholder management


13.1 Identify stakeholders 

  • Stakeholder register templates,
  • Lessons learned from previous projects or phases, and
  • Stakeholder registers from previous projects.

 


13.2 Plan stakeholder management 

All organizational process assets are used as inputs for the Plan Stakeholder Management process. Of these, lessons learned database and historical information are of particular importance, because they provide insights on previous stakeholder management plans and their effectiveness. These can be used to plan the stakeholder management activities for the current project.

 


13.3 Manage stakeholder engagement

  • Organizational communication requirements,
  • Issue management procedures,
  • Change control procedures, and
  • Historical information about previous projects.

 


Nhận xét:

  1. Tất cả các quy trình Plan X Management đều có OPA (Organizational Process Assets). (Qty: 10)
  2. Các Knowledge Area có tất cả quy trình đều có OPA (Organizational Process Assets): Integration, Time, Cost, Communications.

 

Ref:

  1. Project integration management (All): Develop project charter, Develop Project Management Plan, Direct & Manage project work, Monitor and control project work, Perform integrated change control, Close project or phase
  2. Project scope management: Plan Scope management, Define Scope, Create WBS (Work Breakdown Structure), Control scope
  3. Project Time management (All): Plan schedule management, Define activities, Sequence activities, Estimate activity resources, Estimate activity durations, Develop schedule, Control schedule
  4. Project cost management (All): Plan cost management, Estimate costs, Determine budget, Control costs
  5. Project quality management: Plan quality management, Control quality
  6. Project human resource management: Plan human resource management, Acquire project team, Manage project team.
  7. Project communications management (All): Plan communications management, Manage communications management, Control communications
  8. Project risk management: Plan risk management, Identify risks, Perform qualitative risk analysis, Perform quantitative risk analysis,
  9. Project procurement management: Plan procurement management, Conduct procurements
  10. Project stakeholder management: Identify stakeholders, Plan stakeholder management, Manage stakeholder engagement

 

 

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