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Tổng hợp các khái niệm cần nắm về Project Communications Management  (Chapter 10) trong kỳ thi PMP

Chapter 10: Project Communications Management

Có 3 quy trình xảy ra trong Knowledge Area Project communications management:

  1. Plan Communications management (Output: Communication management plan)
  2. Manage Communications (Output: Project communication + Project Management Plan / docs / OPA updates)
  3. Control communications (Output: WPI + change requests + Project Management Plan / docs / OPA updates)

 

>> Thi thử PMP Chuyên đề Project Communications Management 

 


  1. Plan communications management (P): Developing an appropriate approach and plan for project communication based on stakeholder’s info needs and requirements and available organizational assets. Identify and Document the approach to communicate most effectively to update and communicate the project info and respond to requests from various stakeholders. Output: Communications management plan + Project doc updates.
  2. Stakeholder register (I): provides the information need to plan the communication with Project Stakeholders
  3. Communications requirements analysis (TT): Determine the information needs of Stakeholders. These requirements are defined by combining the type, format of information needed with an analysis of the value of that information.
    1. Project Manager should also consider the number of potential communications channels, or paths, among Project Stakeholders.
    2. Công thức tính Communication channels: Number of paths = n*(n-1)/2 (Trong đó n là số người tham gia trong dự án, bao gồm cả Project Manager).
  4. Communication technology (TT):
    • Factors may influence the choice of communication technologies
      • Urgent of the need for information: urgency, frequency
      • Availability of technology: compatible, available, accessible
      • Ease to use: suitable for Project participants
      • Project environment: case of face-to-face, virtual environment, multiple time zones, culture…
      • Sensitivity & confidentiality of information: determine if the information is sensitivity or confidential, also consider to the most appropriate way to communicate the information.
    • Determine how to communication with Stakeholders?
      • Face to face interactions
      • By telephone, fax, email
      • Meetings, conference call
      • Project management system or any software
  5. Communication models (TT):
    • Encode: ideas are translated into language by sender. The sender is responsible for the transmission of message, ensuring the information being communicated is clear and complete, and confirming it is correctly understood.
    • Transmit message: This information is then sent by sender using communication channels. The transmission of this message may be compromised by various factors, such as distance, technology, cultural difference… Generally, these factors are termed as noise. Any noises along the way may compromise the original meaning of message… lead to being misunderstood, or misinterpreted.
    • Decode: The message is translated by receive back into meaningful ideas. The receiver is responsible for ensuring the information is received entirely, understood correctly and acknowledged.
    • Acknowledge: the receive may signal (ack) receipt of message, DO NOT necessarily mean AGREEMENT with the sender.
    • Feedback/ response: When the receiver message have been decoded and understood, the receiver encodes ideas into a message and then transmits this message to the original sender.
  6. Communication Methods (TT): 3 methods
    1. Interactive communication:
      • Between two or more parties performing a multidirectional exchange of information. It’s the most efficient way to ensure a common understanding by all participants on specified topics.
      • Eg: meetings, phone calls, video conference
    2. Push communication:
      • Sent to specific recipients who need to receive the information. Ensure the information is distributed but NOT ensure that it actually reached or was understood by the intended audience.
      • Eg: letter, email, reports, faxes, voice mails, sms…
    3. Pull communication:
      • Used for very large volumes of information / audiences, and requires the recipients to access the communication content at their own discretion.
      • Eg: intranet, e-learning, lessons learned databases…
    4. Communication types:
      1. Formal written: complex problems, Project management plans, Project charter, memos, communicating over long distances.
      2. Formal verbal: Presentations, speeches
      3. Informal written: Email, handwritten notes
      4. Informal verbal: meetings, conversations
    5. Meetings: face-to-face, online…
  7. Communication management plan (O): describes how Project communications will be planned, monitored and controlled. Including:
    • Stakeholder communications requirements 
    • Reason for the distribution of the information
    • Information to be communicated, including language, format, content, level of detail.
    • Time frame and frequency for the distribution of required information and receipt of acknowledgment or respond.
    • Methods, technologies used to convey the information
    • Person responsible for communicating / authorizing release of confidential information
    • Process for escalating issues that cannot be solved at lower staff level
    • Guidelines for meetings, presentations
  8. Manage communications (P): Creating, Collecting distributing, Storing, Retrieving, Analysis of baseline vs. actual data (Work performance data), and the ultimate disposition of project info in accordance with the Comm Management Plan. Enable an efficient and effective communications flow between project stakeholders. Output: Project communications + Project doc updates + project management plan updates + OPA (Organizational Process Assets) updates.
  9. Effective communications management: The techniques and considerations for effective communications management include:
    • Sender-Receiver models. Incorporating feedback loops to provide opportunities for interactions and remove barriers to communication
    • Choice of media. Specify the situation for using the communication by writing / orally, informal memo / formal report, face to face / email.
    • Writing style: Appropriate use of active voice / passive voice, structure of sentence and choice of word.
    • Meeting management techniques: Preparing an agenda and dealing with conflicts
    • Facilitation techniques: Awareness of impact of body language and design of visual aids (such as picture, movie)
    • Listening techniques: Listening actively by acknowledging, clarifying, confirming understanding.
  10. Work performance reports (I): from Monitoring & Controlling Project work process. Are the physical or electric representation of work performance information (Output of Control processes) compiled in Project docs, intended to generate decisions, actions, or awareness.
  11. Information management systems (TT):
    • Hard copy doc management: letters, memos, reports
    • Electronic communication management tools: email, fax, voice mail, telephone, video, web conferencing…. web interfaces.
  12. Performance reporting (TT): Act of collecting & distributing performance information, including status report, progress measurements, forecasts.
    • Involves the periodic collection & analysis of baseline vs actual data to understand and communicate the Project progress and performance as well as forecast the Project results
    • More elaborate reports may include:
      • Analysis of past performance / Project forecasts
      • Current status of risks & issues
      • Work completed / or to be completed
      • Summary of approved changes
      • Other relevant information which is reviewed or discussed
  13. Project communications (O): may includes deliverables status, schedule, progress, cost incurred. Some common report formats: Bar chart, S-Curves, Histogram, Table.
  14. Control Communications (P): Monitoring and Controlling communications through out the entire project life cycle to ensure the information needs of the project stakeholders are delivered to the right person at the right time. Ensure an optimal information flow among all communication participants at any moment in time. Output: WPI (Work Performance Information) + change reports + OPA (Organizational Process Assets) updates.
  15. Project management plan (I): provides valuable information that includes:
    • Stakeholder communication requirements
    • Reason for distribution of information
    • Timeframe and frequency for distribution of required information
    • Individual / group responsible for communication of information
    • Individual / group receiving information 
  16. Project communications (I): Come from multi sources and may vary in their format, level of detail, degree of formality and confidentiality. Include:
    • Status of deliverables
    • Actual costs incurred
    • Schedule progress
  17. WPD (Work Performance Data) (I): Organizes and summarizes the information gathered, and presents the results of comparative analysis to Baseline.
  18. Information management system (TT):
    • Provides a set of standards tools for the Project Manager to capture, and distribute information to Stakeholders about the Project’s cost, schedule progress, and performance.
    • Some software packages allow the Project Manager to consolidate reports from several systems, and facilitate distribution of reports to the Project Stakeholders.
    • Common distribution formats are table reporting, spreadsheet, analysis visual presentation, graphic…
  19. Meetings (TT):
    • Discussion and dialogue with Project team to determine the most appropriate way to update, communicate Project performance, and respond to requests from Stakeholders for information.
    • Commonly, facilitate through meetings face-to-face, online, conference.
  20. WPI (Work Performance Information) (O): organizes and summarizes the performance data gathered.
    • This performance data typically provides status and progress information on the Project at level of detail required by the various Stakeholders.
    • This information is then communicated to the appropriate Stakeholders.
  21. Classify communication activity:
    • Internal (within the Project) and external (customer, other projects, the media, the public).
    • Formal (reports, memos, briefings) and informal ( emails, ad-hoc discussions)
    • Vertical (up and down the organization) and horizontal (with peers)
    • Official (newsletters, annual report) and unofficial (off the record communications)
    • Written and oral
    • Verbal and non-verbal (voice inflections, body language)
  22. Control of communications:
    • Can Project Manager control all communications? No
    • Should Project Manager try to control communications? Yes, should try.
    • Percentage of  Project Manager’s time is spent to communicate? 80%
  23. Elements of a communication:
    • 7% Words
    • 38% vocal pitch
    • 55% body language

 


>> Thi thử PMP Chuyên đề Project Communications Management 

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