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Tổng hợp các khái niệm cần nắm về lĩnh vực Project Human Resource Management (Chapter 09) trong kỳ thi PMP

Chapter 09: Project Human Resource Management

Có 4 Quy trình trong Project human resource management:

  1. Plan human resource management (Output: Human resource management plan = Staffing management plan + Identified roles & responsibilities + Project organization chart)
  2. Acquire Project team (Output: Project staff assignments + Resource calendars)
  3. Develop Project team (Output: Team performance assessments + EEF updates)
  4. Manage Project team (Output: Change requests + OPA + Project Management Plan updates)

 

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  1. Project Human Resource Management: includes the processes that organize, manage, and lead the project team.
  2. Plan Human Resource Management 9.1 (P): Identifying and Documenting project roles, responsibilities and required skills, reporting relationships, and creating a staffing management plan including the timetable for staff acquisition and release. Output: Human resource management plan = Staffing management plan + Project organization chart + Identified roles & responsibilities.
  3. Organization Chart & Position Descriptions (TT): OBS there are 3 common formats, different formats may be used, depending on the project.
    1. Hierarchical type chart OBS 
    2. Matrix based chart
      • A Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) is used to identify the connections between work packages/activities and project team members.
      • RACI – one type of RAM to use for identifying and communicating roles and responsibilities:
        • R = Responsible
        • A = Accountable
        • C = Consulted
        • I = Informed
    3. Text oriented format:
      • Position descriptions or role-responsibility-authority forms are text-oriented formats are used to specify detailed descriptions of responsibilities
      • Provide information such as duties, responsibilities, authorities, competencies, and qualifications.
  4. Networking (TT):
    • Formal and informal interaction with others in similar orgs or industries that may be helpful now or in the future
    • Common networking activities includes:
      • Luncheons/Informal conversation
      • Trade conferences / Networking websites
      • Professional orgs / Project Work Meetings
  5. Org Theory (TT):
    • Includes motivation theory, personality theory, role theory, working in groups / communication, leadership, and power and influence org structure, org culture.
    • Provide insight intro strategies for dealing with how people work and how well they work.
    • Different situations (culture, structure..) for different strategies.
    • => Effective use of this information can shorten the amount of time, cost and effort needed to create the human resource planning outputs and improve the likelihood that the planning will be effective.
    • => PM should master various techniques and adapt them to their project.
  6. Human Resource Management Plan (O): typically includes:
    1. Identified roles, authorities, competencies and responsibilities
    2. Project org charts
    3. Staffing management plan
  7. The staffing management plan (O): describes when and how human resource requirements will be met. Typically addresses:
    • Staff acquisition
    • Timetable for resource acquisition and assignments (resource calendar).
    • Release criteria (staff release plan)
    • Training needs /Recognition and rewards
    • Compliance to government regulations, union contract…
    • Safety policies and procedures.
  8. Acquire Project Team 9.2 (P): Confirming human resources availability and obtaining the team necessary to complete project assignments. Output: Project staff assignments + Resource calendars
  9. Pre-assignment (TT): in some cases, specific people are selected to participate on a project team, and PM doesn’t need to negotiate for them
  10. Negotiation (TT): PM needs to negotiate with the FM and maybe even other PMs to acquire the staff members with required skills and competencies.
  11. Acquisition (TT): When the performing org lacks the in-house staff needed to complete the project, the project management plan may hire consultants or subcontract some of the work to another org.
  12. Virtual teams (TT):
    • When project team members in different locations, work from homes.
    • Remote expertise, mobility limitation, disability.
    • Different shifts
    • Reduce travel expense
    • Require extra effort in communication.
  13. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (TT):
    • Availability – who is available and when within the project time?
    • Ability – what competencies do staff member possess?
    • Experience / Knowledge – Have they done similar work on other project?
    • Interests – are staff members interested in this project?
    • Cost – How much cost is required for this skill and competency level? Is it more costly to outsource?
    • Location of the team, time-zone and communication capabilities
    • Org structure, structure-funtional, matrix or projectized? What is the PM’s authority and ability to acquire HR?
  14. Project Staff Assignments (O):
    • Staffing is considered complete when the appropriate people have been assigned to work on the project.
    • Project staff assignments may require the PM to:
      • Complete a job description with the name of the individual, the duration of assignment, duties and responsibilities, outputs, supervision required, and performance evaluation.
      • Create a project team directory.
      • Insert team member names into the project management plan.
  15. Resource Calendars (O):
    • Project HRM interfaces with schedule development and other processes because scheduling alone does not acknowledge the issues of resource use and availability.
    • To create a reliable final schedule use and availability
    • To create a reliable final schedule, account for scheduled time away (vacations, holidays, commitments to other projects).
  16. Develop Project Team 9.3 (P): Improving the competencies, team interaction, and the overall team environment to enhance project performance. Output: Team performance assessments + Enterprise Environment Factors (EEF) updates. Objectives:
    1. Build up and enhance teamwork, team spirit by creating an open, truthful, constructive env.
    2. Improve knowledge, skills of team members => Able to complete project deliverables, improving quality, reducing cost and time.
    3. Create and maintain env that allow dynamic improvement of both individual and team productivity.
    4. Encourage cross training, mentoring between team members to share knowledge and experience.
  17. Interpersonal (Soft Skills) (TT):
    • Effective communication
    • Influencing the org
    • Leadership
    • Motivation
    • Negotiation, Conflict management, problem-solving
  18. Training (TT): all activities designed to increase the competencies of the project team members. Training may be formal or informal:
    • e-learning
    • sending individuals to training help outside the org
    • Bringing certified trainers into the org
    • On the job training
    • Mentoring and Coaching
  19. Team-building activities (TT):
    • Help a team bond and build a team vision
    • Increase communication
    • Build trust and increase a safe env
    • Help staff feel valued and rewarded by having fun together outside the workplace
    • Build relationships among co-workers
    • Remind team members about the importance of planning and of communicating
    • Clarify roles and the process for determining roles in a group project situation
  20. Team building Activities – 5 stages of team formation & development (Tuckman’s stages)
    1. Forming: People are brought together as a team
    2. Storming: there are disagreements as people learn to work together
    3. Norming: Team members begin to build good working relationships
    4. Performing: the team becomes efficient and work effectively together => PM develop individual team members
    5. Adjourning: the project ends, and the team is disbanded.
  21. Ground rules (TT):
    • Statements of values and guidelines that a group establishes to help team members decide how to act
    • Example of ground rules:
      • Treat each other with respect / Start meetings on time
      • Take turns taking in communication
  22. Co-location (TT): Placing project team members in the same location (war room) to enhance their ability to perform as a team.
  23. Recognition and Rewards (TT): offering bonuses or trips to recognize accomplishments made by the project team. this is best way to keep your team motivated.
  24. Personnel Assessment Tools (TT): Various tools are available such as attitudinal survey, assessments, structure review, ability test, focus group… that provide improved understanding, trust, commitment, and communication among team members throughout project.
  25. Team Performance Assessments (O):
    • has the team performance improved? Are the motivational techniques working?
    • Look at how the team’s skill set has improved, and make sure it’s documented
    • Effective team development strategies and activities are implemented such as training, team building, colocation, recognition and rewards, motivation to increase the team’s performance, which increases the likelihood of meeting project objectives.
    • The performance of a successful team is measured in term of:
      • Technical successful (include quality) => meeting project objectives
      • Performance on project schedule => finished on time
      • Performance on budget => finished within financial constraints
  26. Manage Project Team 9.4 (P): Tracking team member performance, providing feedback, resolving issues, and managing changes to optimize project performance. Influence team behavior, manages conflict, resolve issues, and apprises team member performance. Output: change requests + Enterprise Environment Factors (EEF) + OPA (Organizational Process Assets) updates + Project Management Plan updates
  27. Work Performance Reports (O): provides doc about the current project status compared to project forecasts,… assist in determining future HR requirements, recognition and rewards, and update to Staff Management Plan.
  28. Observation and Conversation (TT):
    • Monitor team members attitudes and performance including:
      • Progress toward deliverables
      • Accomplishments that are a source of pride
      • Interpersonal issues
    • Allows project managers to
      • Provide encouragement
      • Reinforce project objectives and vision
      • Intervene early in conflicts
    • Management by Walking Around helps stay in touch with what is really going on with the project.
  29. Project Performance Appraisals (TT)
    • Looking at each person’s work and assessing his or her performance
    • Evaluation and feedback encourage team members to achieve high level of performance
  30. Conflict Management (TT):
    • Conflict is common during projects and is not necessarily negative
    • Reduce conflict with:
      • team ground rules
      • group norms/policies
      • Solid project management, such as communications planning and role definition
    • 7 Sources of conflict: (Resource, Scheduling, Project Priorities)
      • Scheduling
      • Project Priorities
      • Resources
      • Technical Opinions
      • Administrative procedure
      • Personality
      • Cost
    • Techniques for resolving conflict:
      • Project team members should try to resolve conflict
      • If conflict escalates, the PM should help
      • A direct collaborative approach is useful
      • If a disruptive conflict continues, formal procedures may be necessary.
    • 5 General techniques for resolving conflict:
      • Withdrawing / Avoiding: retreat or postpone a decision on a problem.
      • Smoothing / Accommodating: emphasizing areas of agreement rather than areas of difference.
      • Compromising / Reconcile (lose-lose): finding solutions that bring some degree of satisfaction to all parties in order to temporarily  resolve the conflict.
      • Forcing / Directing (win-lose): usually enforced through a power position to resolve a emergency.
      • Collaborating / Problem Solving / Confrontation (Win-Win): incorporating multiple viewpoints and insights from differing perspectives, requires a cooperative attitude and open dialogue that typically lead to consensus and commitment.
    • Avoiding:
      • Issue may be postponed for later consideration or one party may withdraw.
      • May be effective when there is not enough time to resolve the issue, or when the stakes are low.
      • Temporary solution: issue is not resolved and the problem and conflict are likely to reoccur.
    • Smoothing:
      • Parties seek solutions that will reduce interpersonal conflict every one feels better.
      • May be acceptable if stakes are low or need a temporary solution.
      • Temporary solution: Disagreement may not be adequately addressed and may reemerge (reoccur).
    • Compromising / Reconciling:
      • Resolution achieved through bargaining, give and take attitude, but parties do not engage in a full and open partnership.
      • Provides resolution, helps maintain relationships
    • Forcing:
      • One party prevails by exerting power, and ignoring needs and concerns of the other party
      • May be justified if the stakes are high and the need for a solution takes precedence over relationships
      • Resolution is reached, but may increase conflict later and often breaks down relationships.
    • Collaborating / Problem Solving
      • Treats conflict as a problem to be solved
      • Parties discuss the issues openly and consider alternative everyone’s needs are addressed.
      • It may not be appropriate in fall circumstances, especially time-critical decicsions
      • Can lead to a win-win solution accepted by all parties.
  31. Interpersonal Skills (TT) – Soft Skills:
    • Leadership: some typical leadership styles:
      • Autocratic: top-down approach where the manager has power to do whatever he/she wants. The manager may coach or delegate, but everyone is doing what the manager wants them to do.
      • Bureaucratic: focuses on procedures exactly. It may be appropriate for work in which detail is critical or in which specific safety or other regulations must be strictly adhered to.
      • Charismatic: Encourage their team in performing project work. With this style, project success may become dependent on the presence of the charismatic leader, and the team relies on the leader for motivation.
      • Democratic: encourage team participation in the decision-making process. The team own the decisions made by the groups, which results in improved teamwork and cooperation.
      • Laissez-faire: French term, mean “follow to act”. A laissez-faire manager is not directly involved in th work of the team but manages and consults as necessary. This style can be appropriate with a highly skilled team.
    • Influencing:
      • Power of PM: “How to get cooperation from team & stakeholders”
        • Formal / Legitimate: comes from your position
        • Reward: come from your your award policies form your position
        • Penalty: come from your penalty policies from your position
        • Expert: come from your being technical/ project management expert.
        • Referent: come from another person liking, respecting you.. due to your charisma, fame.
      • The PM’s position are Formal, Reward & Penalty
      • The Best forms of power are Expert & Reward
      • The Work forms of power is Penalty
      • The Power is earned by your own is Expert.
    • Effective Decision Making:
      • Focus on goals to be served / Follow a decision making processs
      • Study the env factors / Analyze available information
      • Develop personal qualities of the team members/ Stimulate team creativity
      • Manage opportunity and risk.
  32. Expectancy theory: employees who believe their efforts will lead to effective performances and who expect to be rewarded for their accomplishments.
  33. Arbitration: a neutral party hears and resolves a dispute.
  34. Perquisites (perks): some employees receive special rewards, such as assigned parking spaces, education, profit sharing…
  35. Fringe benefits: standard benefit
  36. Hallo affect: you are a great programmer, they will make you a PM & expect you a great PM also => come from the impression of a high/low rating on some specific factor.
  37. Motivation Theories (Xem thêm: 5 thuyết motivational)
    1. McGregor’s Theory of X and Y:
      • Theory X: manager who accept this theory believe people need to be watched every minute, people avoid responsibility, and avoid work whenever possible
      • Theory Y: managers who accept this theory believe that people are willing to work without supervision, and want to achieve. People can direct their own effects.
    2. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs: people are not most motivated to work by security or money. Instead, the highest motivation is to contribute and to use their skills. Maslow calls this “self-actualization”
      1. Physiological: need for air, water, food, hosing, clothing…
      2. Safety: security, stability, freedom from harm
      3. Social: Love, affection, approval, friends, association
      4. Esteem: accomplishment, respect, attention, appreciation
      5. Self-acutilization: self-fulfillment, growth, learning.
    3. David McClelland’s theory of needs: people are most motivated by one of the three needs listed in the follwing:
      1. Need for archievement: those people should be given projects that are challenging but are reachable. The like recognition.
      2. Need for affiliation: these people work best when cooperating with others. They seek approval father than recognition.
      3. Need for power: People whose need for power is socially oriented, rather that personally oriented, are effective leaders and should be allow to manage others. These people like to organiza and influence others.
    4. Herzberg’s theory
      • Hygiene factors: poor hygiene factors may destroy motivation, but improving them, will not improve motivation.
        • Working conditions, policies, supervision
        • Salary
        • Personal life
        • Relationship at work
        • Safety
      • Motivating agents: what motivates people is the work itself, including such thing as:
        • Responsibility
        • Self-actuallization
        • Professional growth
        • Recognition

 


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