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Tổng hợp các khái niệm cần nắm về lĩnh vực Project Quality Management (Chapter 08) trong kỳ thi PMP

Chapter 08: Project Quality Management

Có 3 Quy trình trong Project quality management:

  1. Plan quality management (Output: Quality management plan + Process improvement plan + Quality checklists + Quality metrics + Project docs updates)
  2. Perform quality Assurance (Output: Change requests + Project Management Plan updates + Project docs updates)
  3. Control quality (Output: Quality control measurements)

 

>> Thi thử PMP Chuyên đề Project Quality Management 

 


  1. What is Quality? is defined as the degree to which the project fulfills requirements.
  2. What is Quality Management? includes creating and following policies and procedures to ensure by auditing/measuring/evaluating that a project must be controlled to meets the defined needs it was intended to meet from the customer’s perspective.
  3. History Evolution of Quality:
    • Middle ages – 1865: Craftspeople and guilds era
    • 1865 – 1930s: Mass production and inspection era (Industrial Revolution)
    • 1930s – 1950s: Statistical quality control era (Industrial Revolution)
    • 1950s – 1970s: Quality assurance era (Focus on process vs end product)
    • 1970s – Present: Strategic quality management era (Management view quality as competitive advantage. Quality is customer based)
    • Craftspeople => Mass-production & Inspection => Statistical QC => QA => Strategic Quality Management (Q. Plan, Q. Assurance, Q. Control)
  4. History – Evolution of Quality:
    • Fredrick Taylor 1865-1915
    • Walter Shewhart 1891-1967
    • W. Edwards Deming 1900-1993
    • Kaoru Ishikawa 1915-1989
    • Joseph Juran 1904-Present
    • Armand Feigenbaum 1920-Present
  5. Gold Plating (Cho dư thừa): refers to giving the customer extra (ie: extra functionality, higher quality components, extra scope, better performance). PMI: No Gold-Plating.
  6. Prevention Over Inspection (Phillip B Crosby): Quality must be Planned In, NOT inspected In. The Cost of preventing mistakes is generally much less than the cost of correcting them when they are found by inspection.
  7. JIT – Just In Time: eg holding raw materials in inventory is too expensive & unnecessary => Suppliers deliver materials just when we need or just before we need => Inventory = 0
    • A company using JIT must have high quality
    • A JIT system forces attention on quality.
  8. Marginal Analysis: optimal quality is reached at the point where the benefit/revenue to be received from improving quality equals the incremental cost to secure/achieved that quality.
  9. Continuous Improvement (Kaizen): involves continuously looking for small improvements in products or processes to reduce costs and ensure consistency of performance of products or services.
    1. TQM – Total Quality Management: a philosophy that encourages Companies & their Employees to focus on finding ways to continuously improve the quality of their business practices & products.
    2. The Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle (PDCA): is the basis for quality improvement as defined by Shewahart and modified by Deming.
  10. Responsibility of Quality:
    1. Entire organization has responsibilities  relating to quality
    2. Senior management is responsible for organizational quality
    3. Each team member is responsible for self inspection
    4. PM has ultimate responsibility for quality of product of project.
  11. Customer Satisfaction:
    • Quality is conformance to requirements – Philip B Crosby
    • Crosby’s response to the quality crisis was the principle of “doing it right the first time” (DRIFT). He would also include 4 major principles:
      1. The definition of quality is conformance to requirements
      2. The system of quality is prevention
      3. The performance standard is zero defects
      4. The measurement of quality is the price of nonconformance.
  12. Grade vs Quality:
    • Grade: meets spec requirements
    • Quality: behaves as expected.
  13. Statistical Independence: refers to two events not being linked. Eg: the event of getting a 6 the first time a die is rolled and the event of getting a 6 the second time are independent.
  14. Mutually Exclusive (Triệt tiêu): two events cannot happen on the same trial. Eg: tossing a coin, which can result in either heads or tails, but not both.
  15. Impact of Poor Quality:
    1. Increase cost
    2. Low morale
    3. Low customer satisfaction
    4. Increased risk
    5. Rework
    6. Schedule delays
  16. Plan Quality Management 8.1: Identifying quality requirements and standards for the project, and its deliverables, and documenting how the project will demonstrate compliance with relevant quality requirements. (What will need to be done to meet those standards). Provide guidance and direction on how quality will be managed and validated throughout the project. Output: Quality management plan + Process improvement plan + Quality checklist + Quality metrics + Project docs updates.
  17. Stakeholder Register (I): list of individuals and organizations that will be impacted by the quality of the project.
  18. Risk register (I): some risks may impact quality requirements.
  19. Cost Benefit Analysis (TT): The primary benefits of meeting quality requirements can include less rework, higher productivity, lower costs, and increased stakeholder satisfaction. A business case for each quality activity compares the cost of the quality step to the expected benefit.
  20. Benchmarking (TT): the surveying of other organizations, or looking at any past comparable projects to get ideas for improvement on the current project and to provide a basic to use in measuring quality performance. Use the term “Sampling’ to obtain this Benchmark.
  21. Cost of Quality (CoQ): is cost of prevention and inspection activities you do to ensure quality on the project. It includes any time spend writing standard, reviewing documents, meeting to analyze the root causes of defects, rework to fix the defects.
    • Cost of quality: cost of avoid failures (Prevention & Appraisal)
    • Cost of poor quality: failure costs (internal & external)
    • Cost of Conformance (Preventing): Money spent during the project to avoid failures.
      • Preventing Costs (Build a quality product)
        • Training
        • Document processes
        • Time to do it right
      • Appraisal Costs (Assess the quality)
        • Testing
        • Destructive testing loss
        • Inspections
    • Cost of Non-Conformance (Making Good): Money spent during and after the project because of failures
      • Internal Failure Costs: Failures found by the project
        • Rework
        • Scrap
      • External Failures Costs: Failures found by the customer
        • Liabilities
        • Warranty work
        • Lost business
    • Cost of Conformance < Cost of Non-Conformance
  22. DOE – Design of Experiments (TT): is a statistical method, use of experimentations to statistically determine what variables will improve quality => Optimize product/processes
    • Allow you to systematically change all of the important factors in a process and see which combination has a lower impact on the project. This technique is faster and more accurate than changing the variables one at a time.
    • Allow you to find which variable/factors that have the most impact on quality . Also, Experiments are a method for R&D.
  23. Statistical Sampling (TT) (Population/Sample): Reach to Benchmarking.
    • You are responsible for the quality of the project product, but there’s no way you can inspect each one. If study entire population => take too long, cost too much, be too destructive..
    • It makes sense for you to take a sample of the products and inspect those.
  24. Additional quality planning tools (TT):
    • Brainstorming, Matrix diagram, Nominal Group Techniques
    • Quality management and control tool.
  25. Seven Basic Quality Tools (TT):
    1. Cause & Effect Diagram (fishbone diagram, Ishikawa diagram) => find root cause of defect.
      • In quality planning: can be used to look forward at what might contribute to the highest quality on the project. Explore a desired future outcome.
      • In quality control: can be used to look backward.
      • Deal with Quality Problem that arise. Identifies possible causes of problems.
      • The last answer in this tool usually point to a process, not people.
    2. Flowcharting (Xử lý mặt quy trình):
      • Show how process or system flow from beginning to end. How the elements interrelate.
      • In Plan Quality process, it can be used to see a process and find potential future quality problems.
      • In Perform Quality Control process, it is used to analyze quality problems.
    3. Histogram: data is displayed in the form of bars or colums. The higher bar, the more frequent the problem. (based on timely)
    4. Pareto Chart: is a type of histogram, but it arranges results from the most frequent to least frequent.
      • 80% of problems are due to 20% of the root cause
      • Help focus attention on the most critical issues to improving.
      • Prioritize potential “cause” of the problems
      • Separates the critical few from the uncritical many.
    5. Scatter diagrams: Show how two different types of data related to each other, to explain a change in the dependent variable.
    6. Checksheets: useful for gathering attributes data while performing inspections to identify defects.
    7. Control Chart:
      • Graphically help you to determine of a process is within acceptable limits.
      • Upper and Lower control limits (base on org’s standard)
        • In control: data points within this range
        • Out of control: data points outside this range
      • Specification Limits (base on customer’s expectation, assume that spec limit are outside the upper & lower control limits)
      • Rule of seven: seven points are above or below the mean, even within the upper & lower control limit => Out of control.
      • In Plan Quality process: Control Chart is Set Up as part of effort to determine / measurement what will be quality on the project.
      • In Perform Quality process: they are Utilized, where they help determine if a process is within acceptable limits (Not out of control).
  26. Quality Management Plan (O): How the org’s quality policies, standards will be implemented by project management plan to meet the quality requirements set for project.
    • What – How – When the part of the project or deliverables will be measured.
    • The quality management plan should be reviewed early in the project to ensure that decisions are based on accurate information.
  27. Process Improvement plan (O)
    • Details the steps for analyzing Project management and product management processes to identify that enhance their value, includes the following areas:
      • Process boundaries
      • Process configuration
      • Process metric
      • Target for improved performance
    • Project Manager must also improve processes that are currently in use on the Project
    • This helps save time, money by increasing efficiency and preventing problems, and increases the probability that customer will be satisfied.
  28. Quality Metrics (O): Describes a project or product attribute, and how the control quality process will measure. The tolerance defines the allowable variance to the metric.
  29. Checklist (O): a quality checklist is a list of items to inspect, a list of steps to be performed...
  30. Process improvement plan (O):
    • Details the steps for analyzing project management and product management processes to identify activities that enhance their value, includes the following areas:
      • Process boundaries
      • Process configuration
      • Process metric
      • Target for improved performance
    • PM must also improve processes that are currently in use on the project
    • This helps save time, money by increasing efficiency and preventing problems, and increases the probability that customer will be satisfied.
  31. Perform Quality Assurance 8.2 (P)Auditing the quality requirements and the results from quality control measurements to ensure appropriate quality standards and operational definition are used. Facilitate the improvement of quality processes. Output: Change requests + Project Management Plan updates + Project docs update + OPA
  32. 7 Quality Management & Control Tools (TT):
    1. Affinity diagram: is similar to mind mapping techniques in that they are used to generate large numbers of ideas that can be linked to form organized patterns of thought about a problem, into groups for review and analysis
    2. Process decision program charts (PDPC): Useful as a method for contingency planning that help teams in anticipating intermediate steps that could detail achievement of the goal.
    3. Interrelationship diagraphs: Provide a process for creative problem solving in moderately complex scenarios.
    4. Tree diagrams: Known as systematic diagrams and be used to represent decomposition hierarchies such as WBS, RBS, OBS…
    5. Prioritization matrixes: Identify the key issues and the suitable alternatives to be prioritized  as a set of decisions for implementation.
    6. Activity network diagrams: Like schedule network diagram.
    7. Matrix diagram: Used to perform data analysis with org structure created in the matrix.
  33. Quality Audit (TT): review if you are complying with company policies, standards, and procedures and to determine whether the policies, standards, and procedures being used are effective and efficient.
    • A good quality audit will look for new lessons learned and good practices that your project is able to contribute to the performing org.
    • Quality Audits can confirm the implementation of approved change request including corrective actions, preventive actions, and defect repairs.
  34. Process Analysis (TT): is a part of continuous improvement and identifies improvements that might be needed in processes.
    • Look at your processes to find out how to make it better
    • You use your process improvement plan to do it.
  35. Change Request (O):
    • Many changes may be suggested during performing Quality Assurance
    • Includes recommended corrective and preventive actions
  36. Control Quality 8.3 (P): Monitoring and Recording results of executing the quality activities to assess performance and recommend necessary changes. Output: Quality control measurements + Validated changes + Verified deliverables + change requests + WPI + Project Management Plan updates + Project docs updates + OPA updates. Key benefits:
    • Identifying the causes of poor process or product quality, and recommending and take action to eliminate them.
    • Verifying that project deliverables and works meet the requirements specified by key stakeholder (also necessary for final acceptance).
  37. Work Performance Data (I): are used to evaluate actual progress as compared to planned progress.
    • Planned vs Actual technical performance. (Scope Baseline)
    • Planned vs Actual schedule performance. (Schedule Baseline)
    • Planned vs Actual cost performance. (Cost Baseline)
  38. Deliverables (O): Output of Direct of Manage Project Work
  39. Statistical Sampling (TT): you are responsible for the quality of the project product, but there’s no way you can inspect each one. If study entire population => take too long, cost too much, be too destructive. It makes sense for you to take a sample of the products, and inspect those.
  40. Inspection (TT):
    • Looking at all deliverables and see if they conform to documented standards
    • You don’t just inspect the final product. You must look at all of the deliverables that are made along the way
    • Increasing inspection lead to the LEAST amount of Quality Improvement
  41. Quality Control Measurements (O): the numbers of defects you’re found, numbers of tests that passed or failed (outputs from the inspections). Results from the repairs you’ve made… and those are documented.
  42. Quality Standards: include project processes and product goals
  43. Quality Planning: should be performed in parallel with the other project planning process.
  44. Control Quality is performed throughout the project
  45. Output “Quality Control Measurements” of Control Quality process is used in Perform Quality Assurance process to analyze and evaluate the quality of the processes of the project against the standards of the performing org or the requirements specified to determine their level of correctness
  46. PMI-isms for Quality:
    1. PM should recommend improvements on processes, policies, standards to the org
    2. Changes in project constraints => PM consider quality impact
    3. Before a WP is completed, quality should be checked
    4. PM must spend time trying to improve quality.
    5. PM should have plan for continually improving processes.
    6. Some of the quality works might be done by “Quality Department” in the org, not project team alone.
    7. PM must assure defined processes are followed.

 


>> Thi thử PMP Chuyên đề Project Quality Management 

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