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Tổng hợp các khái niệm cần học về Project Stakeholder Management  (Chapter 13) trong kỳ thi PMP

Chapter 13: Project Stakeholder management 

 

Có 4 Quy trình trong Project Stakeholder management:

  1. Identify Stakeholders (Output: Stakeholder register)
  2. Plan Stakeholder management  (Output: Stakeholder management plan + Project docs updates)
  3. Manage Stakeholder engagement (Output: Issue log + change requests)
  4. Control Stakeholder engagement (Output: WPI + change requests + OPA / Project Management Plan / docs updates)

 

>> Thi thử PMP Chuyên đề Project Stakeholder Management 

 


  1. Project Stakeholder management? includes the processes required to identify the people, group, organizations that could impact or be impacted by Project, to analyze Stakeholder expectations and their impact on Project, and to develop appropriate management strategies for effectively engaging Stakeholders in Project decisions and execution.
    • Also focuses on continuous communication with Stakeholders to understand their needs and expectations, addressing issues as they occur, managing conflicting interests… Stakeholder should be managed as a key Project objective.
  2. Identify Stakeholders (P)Identifying all people or organizations that could impact or be impacted by a decision, activity, or outcome of the project, analyzing and documenting relevant info regarding their interests (concern), influence (involvement), interdependences, and potential impact on project success. Allow PM to identify the appropriate focus each stakeholder, group of stakeholders. Output: Stakeholder register
  3. Procurement documents (I): Any suppliers or vendors listed in contracts are generally considered to be Stakeholders.
  4. Enterprise Environment Factors (EEF) (I): Governmental standards, regulation, industry standards.
  5. OPA (Organizational Process Assets) (I): Stakeholder register templates, Stakeholder registers from previous projects, historical information, Lessons Learned from previous projects.
  6. Stakeholders analysis (TT):
    • 3 steps:
      1. Step 1: Identify all potential Stakeholders and relevant information such as: roles, departments, interests, knowledge levels, expectations & influence levels.
      2. Step 2: Identify potential impact or support each Stakeholder could generate, and classify them so as to define an approach strategy.
      3. Step 3: Assess how key Stakeholders are likely to react or respond in various situations in order to plan how to influence them to enhance their support, mitigate potential negative impacts.
    • Multiple Classification models
      • Power / Interest: base on their level of authority “Power” & their concern “Interest” regarding the Project outcomes.
      • Power / Influence: base on their level of authority “Power” & their active involvement “Influence”
      • Influence / Impact: base on their active involvement “Influence in the Project & their ability to effect changes to the Project’s planning / execution “Impact”.
      • Salience mode: describing classes of Stakeholders base on their power – ability to impose, their urgency and legitimacy.
  7. Expert judgment (TT): interview all of the experts on your Project to identify more Stakeholders.
  8. Meetings (TT): to develop an understanding of major Project Stakeholders, exchange and analyze information about roles, interests, knowledge, and overall position of each Stakeholder facing the Project.
  9. Stakeholder register (O): contains information about who the identified Stakeholders are:
    • Identification information: name, title, role, location, and contact information.
    • Assessment information: major requirements, main expectations, potential influence, and the most interest… in the Project.
    • Stakeholders classification: whether they are internal or external and supporter / neutral / resistor.
  10. Plan Stakeholder management (P)Developing appropriate management strategies to effectively engage stakeholders throughout project life cycle, based on the analysis of their needs, interests, and potential impact on project success. Provide a clear, actionable plan to interact with project stakeholders to support the project’s interests. Output: Stakeholder management plan + Project docs updates.
  11. Analytical  techniques (TT) 
    • The current engagement level of all Stakeholders needs to be compared to the planned engagement levels required for successful Project completion. There are 5 engagement levels of Stakeholders as follow:
      • Unaware: Unaware of Project and potential impacts.
      • Resistant: aware of Project and potential impacts and resistant to change
      • Neutral: aware of Project yet neither supportive nor resistant
      • Supportive: aware of Project and potential impacts and supportive to change
      • Leading: aware of Project and potential impacts and actively engaged in ensuring the Project is a success.
    • The gaps between the Current and Desired level of Stakeholder engagement can be fulfilled by further communications, additional actions…
  12. Stakeholder management plan (O): Identifies the management strategies required to effectively engage Stakeholders. It can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the needs of the Project. Often, includes:
    • Current & Desired engagement levels of key Stakeholders.
    • Scope & impact of change to Stakeholders.
    • Identified interrelationships and potential overlap between Stakeholders
    • Stakeholder communication requirements for current Project.
    • Information to be distributed to Stakeholders, including language, format, content, level of detail.
    • Reason for the distribution of that information and expected impact to Stakeholder engagement.
    • Time frame & frequency for distribution of required information to Stakeholders.
  13. Manage Stakeholder Engagement (P)Communicating and working with stakeholders to meet their needs and expectations, and addressing issues as they occur… by ensuring that stakeholders clearly understand the project goals, benefits, and risks. Allow PM to increase support and minimize resistance from stakeholders, significantly increasing the chances to achieve project success. Output: Issue log + change requests + Project Management Plan / docs / OPA updates
  14. Change log (I):
    • A change log is a Project doc where all change requests are recorded.
    • These changes and their impact to the Project in terms of time, cost, and risk must be communicated to the appropriate Stakeholders.
  15. OPA (Organizational Process Assets) (I):
    • Organizational communication requirements
    • Issues management procedures, change control procedures.
    • Historical information about previous Project: Project report, Lessons Learned, past experience working with the same Stakeholders, team experience on similar Project…
  16. Interpersonal skills (soft-skills) (TT) => khi bắt đầu xảy ra
    • Building trust
    • Resolving conflict
    • Active listening
    • Overcoming resistance to change
  17. Management skills (TT) => Làm từ ban đầu khi chưa xảy ra.
    • Presentation, negotiating, writing, public speaking
    • Facilitate consensus toward Project objectives
    • Influence people to support the Project
    • Negotiate agreements to satisfy the Project needs
    • Modify organizational behavior to accept the Project outcomes.
  18. Issue log (O): to be updated as new issues are identified and current issues are resolved.
  19. Project docs updates (O): update to relevant docs, include but are not limited to, the Stakeholder register, such as Stakeholder information change, any new Stakeholders
  20. OPA (Organizational Process Assets) updates (O):
    • Stakeholder notifications
    • Project reports
    • Project representations
    • Project records
    • Feedback from Stakeholders
    • Lessons Learned documentation
  21. Control Stakeholder engagement (P): Monitoring overall project stakeholder relationships and adjusting strategies and plans for engaging stakeholders. Maintain or increase the efficiency and effectiveness of stakeholders engagement activities. Output: WPI + Change requests + Issue log / Project Management Plan / docs / OPA updates
  22. WPD (Work Performance Data) (I): are primary observations and measurements identified during activities being performed to carry out the Project work.
    • Various measurements on Project activities and deliverables are collected during various controlling processes.
    • Data are often viewed as the lowest level of abstraction from which information is derived by other processes.
    • Eg: Reported percentage of work completed, technical performance measures, start & finish dates of schedule activities, number of change requests, of defects, actual cost, actual duration…
  23. Project documents (I): multiple Project documents originating from initiation, planning, execution, or control processes may be used as supporting inputs for controlling Stakeholder engagement, includes:
    • Project schedule
    • Stakeholder register, Issue log
    • Project communication
  24. Meetings (TT): are used to exchange and analyze information about Stakeholder engagement
  25. Information management systems (TT):
    • Provides a set of standards tools for the Project Manager to capture, store, and distribute information to Stakeholders about the proj’s cost, schedule progress, and performance.
    • Some software packages allow the Project Manager to consolidate reports from several systems, and facilitate distribution of reports to the Project Stakeholders.
    • Common distribution formats are table reporting, spreadsheet analysis, visual presentation, graphic
  26. Change requests (O): Analysis of Project performance and interactions with Stakeholders often generates change request. These change request are processed through the Perform Integrated Change Control process.
    • Recommended corrective actions which bring the expected future performance of the Project in line with Project Management Plan.
    • Recommended preventive actions which can reduce the probability of incurring future negative Project performance.

 


>> Thi thử PMP Chuyên đề Project Stakeholder Management 

Tổng hợp PMP Concepts: https://hocpmp.com/pmp-concepts

 

 

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