Tổng hợp các khái niệm cần nắm về lĩnh vực Project Time Management (Chapter 06) trong kỳ thi PMP

Tổng hợp các khái niệm cần nắm về lĩnh vực Project Time Management (Chapter 06) trong kỳ thi PMP

Chapter 06: Project Time Management

Có 7 Quy trình trong Project time management:

  1. Plan schedule management (Output: Schedule management plan)
  2. Define activities (Output: Activity list + Activity attributes + Milestones list
  3. Sequence activities (Output: Project schedule network diagram)
  4. Estimate activity resources (Output: Activity resource requirements + RBS)
  5. Estimate activity durations (Output: Activity duration estimates)
  6. Develop schedule (Output: Schedule baseline + Project schedule + Schedule data)
  7. Control schedule (Output: WPI + Schedule forecast + Change requests)



  1. Plan Schedule Management 6.1 (P):  Establishing the policies, procedures and documentation for planning, developing, managing, executing, and controlling the project schedule. Provide guidance and direction on how the schedule will be managed throughout the project. Output: Schedule management plan
  2. Analytical Techniques (TT): may involve choosing strategic options to estimate and schedule the project such as:
    1. Scheduling methodology
    2. Scheduling tools and techniques
    3. Estimating approaches, formats,
    4. Project management software.
  3. Schedule Management Plan (O): Establishes the criteria activities for developing, monitoring, and controlling the schedule. May be formal or informal, highly detailed broadly framed, based upon the needs of the project. Schedule management plan can be established by the following:
    1. Project schedule model dev
    2. Level of accuracy
    3. Units of measure
    4. Organizational procedures links
    5. Project model maintenance
    6. Control thresholds
  4. Define Activities 6.2 (P)Identifying  and Documenting the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables. Break down WP into activities that provide a basic for estimating, scheduling, executing, monitoring, controlling the project work. Output: Activity list + Activity attributes +Milestone list
  5. Activity List (O): A comprehensive list of all schedule activities required on the project. That includes the activity identifier and scope of work description for each activity in sufficient detail to unsure that project team members understand what work is required to be completed.
  6. Activity Attributes (O): Activity codes, activity description, predecessor activities, successor activities, logical relationship, leads and lags, resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints, and assumptions. Can be used to identify the person responsible for executing the work, geographic area, or place where the work has to be performed, and activity type…
  7. Milestone List (O): the milestone list defines all the important contractually-required checkpoints or internally-driven reporting events… to control project. Add zero duration to schedule.
  8. Sequence Activities 6.3 (P)Identifying and documenting relationships among the project activities. Define the logical sequence of work to obtain the greatest efficiency given all project constraints. The result is a Schedule Network Diagram. Output: Project schedule network diagram
  9. Precedence Diagramming Method (PDN) or AON (Activity On Node) (TT): there are 4 types PDN/AON: FS, SS, FF, SF
  10. Dependency Determination (TT): 3 types of dependencies:
    1. Hard logic: (Mandatory logic) set by nature of work. Eg: have to setup computer before installing software, have to build walls before roof.
    2. Soft logic: (Discretionary or Preferential logic) best practice. Eg: paint the outside of the house before or after the inside.
    3. External: involve a relationship between project activities and non-project activities. These dependencies are usually outside the project team’s control. Eg: set by Government agency, Union, or major supplier, environmental factors…
  11. Applying Leads and Lags (TT):
    1. Lags: a lag is inserted waiting time/elapsing time between an predecessor and successor activity.
    2. Leads: a lead may be added to start an successor activity before the predecessor activity is completed.
  12. Estimate Activity Resource 6.4 (P): Estimating the type and quantities of material, people, equipment, or supplies required to perform each activity. => RESOURCES: skilled human resources (specific disciplines either individually or in crews or teams), equipment, services, supplies, commodities, material, budgets, or funds. Output: Activity resource requirements + RBS
  13. Resource Calendar (I): resource availability; When and How long identified project resource will be available during the project. Resource experience, skill level, Geographical location.
  14. Alternative Analysis (TT): Considering several difference options for how you assign resources. Includes varying the number of resources as well as the kind of resources you are.
  15. Published Estimating Data (TT): Construction industry estimates of amount of materials needed for standard buildings. Rates of software developer productivity of using software development tools.
  16. Bottom-up Estimating (TT): Involves breaking down complex activities into pieces, and working out the resource assignments for each of those.
  17. Activity Resource Requirements (O): Identifies the types and quantities of resources required for each activity in a WP, including:
    • Technical capacity
    • Performance specifications for HR (availability)
    • Details for material resources
  18. Resource Breakdown Structure (RBS) (O): is hierarchical structure of the identified resources by resource category and resource type.
    • Resource categories include labor, material, equipment, and supplies.
    • Resource types include the skill level, grade level…
    • RBS is useful for organizing and reporting project schedule date with resource utilization information
  19. Estimate Activity Durations 6.5 (P): Approximating the number of work periods needs to complete individual activities with estimated resources. => DURATION: the total number of work periods (not including holidays or other nonworking periods) requires to complete a schedule activity or WBS component. Usually expressed as work days, workweeks. Constrast with effort. Output: Activity duration estimates
  20. Effect vs Duration:
    • Effort refers to the number of Labor Units required to complete a schedule activity. Usually expressed as Staff-hours, Staff-days, or Staff-weeks. Eg: 12 hours of effort. This means if one person worked on this task non stop, they can complete the task in 12 hours.
    • Duration refers to the time period required to complete a schedule activity. Usually expressed as Work-days, Work-weeks. Eg: 12 hours duration: this means the task will be completed in 12 hours time.
    • Noted: Man/Person/Staff-hour in the amount of work performed by an average worker in one hour. It is used in written “estimates” for estimation of the total amount of uninterrupted labor required to perform a task.
  21. Analogous Estimating (Top-down) (TT): Analogous estimating uses historical information and expert judgment. Eg: the last five projects similar to this one each took 5 months, so this one should also.
    • Less costly and time consuming than other techniques, but it is also generally less accurate.
    • For overall project estimate given to the project manager from management or the sponsor.
    • Useful when project has a limited detailed information, little technical data is available.
    • Less accurate: -50% – +50% range
  22. Parametric Estimating (Higher levels of accuracy) (TT): Use mathematical model based on such measures as time per linear meter or time per installation. Eg: if the assigned resource is capable of installing 25 meters of cable per hour, the duration required to install 1000m would be 40 hours (1000/25 = 40).
  23. Three-Point Estimate (PERT analysis) (TT): using a weighted average duration estimates.
    • Adds estimation of uncertainty and risk to duration estimate to improve accuracy.
    • The person estimating the activity provides an Optimistic (O), Pessimistic (P), and Most likely (M) estimate for each activity.
      • PERT = M = (P + 4M + O)/6 (Expected Activity Duration)
      • Activity SD: 01Sigma = (P-O)/6
      • Activity Variance = [(P-O)/6]^2
      • Estimate 01 sigma Formula: M*01*SD 
    • Useful when project teams facing a new type of activity.
  24. Reserve Analysis (TT): Duration estimates may include contingency reserves, (sometimes referred to as time reserves or buffers) into the overall project schedule to account for schedule uncertainty. The contingency reserve may be a percentage of the estimated activity duration. As more precise information about the project becomes available, the contingency reserve may be used, reduced, or eliminated. Contingency  should clearly identified in schedule documentation.
  25. Develop Schedule 6.6 (P): Analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource, requirements, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule. Output: Schedule baseline + Project schedule + Schedule data
  26. Schedule Network Analysis (TT): is a technique that generates the project schedule model, using various analytical techniques, such as Critical Path Method, Critical Chain Method, Resource Optimization techniques to calculate the Early Start (ES) & Early Finish (EF), and Late Start (LS) & Late Finish (LF)
    • ES & EF dates specify Earliest dates on which activity may occur, based on its predecessors, lags, and duration.
    • LS and FS dates specify Latest dates by which and activity must occur in order to meet project deadlines.
  27. CPM – Critical Path Method (TT): Use to estimate the minimum project duration and determine the amount of scheduling flexibility on the logical network paths within the schedule model.
    • This schedule network analysis technique calculates the ES&FS and LS&LF dates for all activities without regard for any resource limitations by performing a forward and backward pass analysis through the schedule network.
      • Forward Pass: calculates ES & EF dates
      • Backward Pass: calculates LS & LF dates
      • Slack or Float: amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying a succeeding activity (next activity) or the project finish date.
        • Free float: Amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the ES date of its successor (next activity).
        • Total float: amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the project end date.
        • Project float: amount of time an project can be delayed without delaying the externally imposed project completion date required by customer, management.
    • Formula:
      • EF = ES + duration -1
      • ES = predecessor’s EF + 1 + Lag (if any)
      • LF = Sucessor’s LS -1 – Lag (if any)
      • LS = LF – duration + 1
  28. Critical Path: is the sequence of activities that represents the longest path through the project, which determines the shortest possible project duration. Delay in completion of any activity of Critical Path will be delay the completion of project, unless corrective action is taken.
    • Any activities on Critical Path will have Float or Slack = 0
  29. Critical Chain Method (TT): is schedule network analysis method that allows the project team to place duration buffers on any project schedule to account for limited resources, project uncertainties:
    • Applies after the critical path has been identified.
    • Adds duration buffers at each point NOT on Critical Path, known as Feeding Buffer.
    • Adds duration buffer at the end of the Critical Path, known as Project Buffer
    • Critical Chain = Critical Path + Resource availability + Buffer
  30. Resource Optimization Techniques (TT):
    1. Resource Leveling: Evaluates all of the resources to see if the critical path needs to change to accommodate resource assignments due to balancing demand for resources with the available supply.
    2. Resource Smoothing: Evaluates any of the resources incase of the project’s critical path is not changed and the completion date may not be delayed, then activities may only be delayed within their free float and total float.
  31. Modeling Techniques (TT):
    1. What-if Scenario Analysis (Phân tích ngữ cảnh): is the process of evaluating scenarios in order to predict their effect, positively or negatively on project objectives that could bring the schedule back into alignment with the project management plan.
    2. Simulation (Mô phỏng): involves calculating multiple project durations with different sets of activity assumption to account for uncertainly. The most common simulation technique is “Monter Carlo Analysis” analysis, that use a computer to simulate the outcome if a project making use of 3-time estimates for each activity or network diagram.
  32. Schedule Compression (TT): a technique that shortens the project schedule duration without reducing the project scope, in order to meet schedule constraints, imposed dates, or other schedule objectives.
    1. Fast tracking:  do only activities on critical path in parallel and only works if activities can be overlapped to shorten duration => rework, increase risk => require more attention to communication.
    2. Crashing (Overtime): cost and schedule tradeoffs are analyzed to determine how to obtain the greatest amount of compression for the least incremental cost, such as approving overtime, bringing in additional resources, or paying to expedite delivery… to activities on the critical path. And only works for any activities where additional resources will shorten the duration => increase cost. Pay attention in CPI indicator (CPI <1)
  33. Project Schedule (O): is an output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with planned dates, durations, milestones, and resources. It is more often presented in graphically formats.
    • Milestone charts
    • Bar charts (known as Gantt chart)
    • Project schedule network diagrams
  34. Schedule Baseline (O): defines the baseline start and finish dates for project and the activity, and is accepted and approved by the appropriate stakeholder. Using in M&C process, to analyze variances between actual and planned schedule performance.
  35. Schedule Data (O): is a collection of information for describing and controlling the schedule. Includes:
    1. Milestones, Activities Attributes, Assumption and Constraints
    2. Resource requirements by time period, Schedule reserves
    3. Alternative schedules (best-case or worst-case scenario)
    4. Schedule data could also includes items such as: resource histograms, cash flow projections, order and delivery schedules.
  36. Control Schedule 6.7 (P): Monitoring the status of the project activities to update project progress and managing changes to the schedule baseline to achieve the plan. Output: WPI + Schedule forecast + change requests 
  37. Work Performance Data (I): Refers to information about project progress such as which activities have started, their progress (physical percent complete), and which activities have finished.
  38. Performance Reviews (TT): measure, compare, and analyze schedule performance data such as actual start and finish dates, percent complete, and remaining duration for work in progress… to determine:
    • Whether there are variations from the project schedule
    • Whether corrective action is required to bring the project back on track.
    • Various techniques include:
      • Trend analysis: examines project performance overtime to determine whether performance is improving or deteriorating, comparing the current performance to future performance goals.
      • Critical Path method: comparing the progress along the critical path can help determine schedule status. The variance on the critical path will have a direct impact on the project end date.
      • Critical Chain Method: comparing the amount of buffer remaining to the amount of buffer needed to protect the delivery date can help determine schedule status. The difference between the buffer needed and the buffer remaining can determine whether corrective action is appropriate.
  39. Earned Value Management (EVM) (TT):
    • Budget at Completion: BAC is total amount of budget that you have for your project.
    • Planned Value: PV is what value your plan says you should have delivered so far.
    • Earned Value: EV is how much of the project’s value you’re really earned.
    • Actual Cost: AC is how much you’re actually spent so far.
    • SV < 0 or SPI <1 => schedule got problem => determine the cause and degree of variance relative to the schedule baseline and deciding whether corrective or preventive action is required.
    • CV < 0 or CPI <1 => budget got problem.
    • Formula:
      • PV = BAC * % Planned complete
      • EV = BAC * % Actual complete
      • SPI = EV/PV
      • SV = EV – PV
      • CPI = EV/AC
      • CV = EV – AC
  40. Heuristic (Rule of Thumb):
    • 50/50 rule: an activity is considered 50% complete when it begins and gets credit for the last 50% only when it is complete.
    • 20/80 rule: an activity is considered 20% complete when it begins and gets credit for the last 80% when it is complete.
    • 0/100 rule: an activity does not get credit for partial completion, it only get credit for full completion


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