Tìm hiểu công cụ Source Selection Analysis ITTO trong luyện thi PMP
It is necessary to review the prioritization of the competing demands for the project before deciding on the selection method. Since competitive selection methods may require sellers to invest a large amount of time and resources upfront, it is a good practice to include the evaluation method in the procurement documents so bidders know how they will be evaluated. Commonly used selection methods include the following:
- Least cost. The least cost method may be appropriate for procurements of a standard or routine nature where well-established practices and standards exist and from which a specific and well-defined outcome is expected, which can be executed at different costs.
- Qualifications only. The qualifications only selection method applies when the time and cost of a full selection process would not make sense because the value of the procurement is relatively small. The buyer establishes a short list and selects the bidder with the best credibility, qualifications, experience, expertise, areas of specialization, and references.
- Quality-based/highest technical proposal score. The selected firm is asked to submit a proposal with both technical and cost details and is then invited to negotiate the contract if the technical proposal proves acceptable. Using this method, technical proposals are first evaluated based on the quality of the technical solution offered. The seller who submitted the highest-ranked technical proposal is selected if their financial proposal can be negotiated and accepted.
- Quality and cost-based. The quality and cost-based method allows cost to be included as a factor in the seller selection process. In general, when risk and/or uncertainty are greater for the project, quality should be a key element when compared to cost.
- Sole source. The buyer asks a specific seller to prepare technical and financial proposals, which are then negotiated. Since there is no competition, this method is acceptable only when properly justified and should be viewed as an exception.
- Fixed budget. The fixed-budget method requires disclosing the available budget to invited sellers in the RFP and selecting the highest-ranking technical proposal within the budget. Because sellers are subject to a cost constraint, they will adapt the scope and quality of their offer to that budget. The buyer should therefore ensure that the budget is compatible with the SOW and that the seller will be able to perform the tasks within the budget. This method is appropriate only when the SOW is precisely defined, no changes are anticipated, and the budget is fixed and cannot be exceeded.