Thuật ngữ WIP và WIP limits trong Agile là gì? Luyện thi PMI-ACP


WIP means “Work In Progress” – a work that has been started but not yet reach “done”

WIP should be limited because:

  • WIP represents investments but no value has been achieved yet
  • WIP represents risks in the form of potential rework as the work has not been accepted
  • WIP represents bottlenecks / inefficiencies in processes, etc.

WIP Limits are used in Kanban to limit the number of performing work in order to optimize the flow, once the WIP limit has been reached, no more new tasks are to be added to the ‘state’ and the team will work together to move current tasks forward

WIP = 5 means the team can only allow 5 tasks for a state (however the WIP limit should not be too low to actually realize the benefits)

Aim to achieve efficiency through focusing on a limited number of tasks so that the team will work together as a whole to move the WIP onto completion

Can be used to identify and clear bottlenecks and manage expectations

Little’s Law – the cycle time is proportional to the size of queue (WIP)

  • Cycle time – the time required to wait for the benefits
  • More time is needed if the WIP is larger

Cumulative Flow Diagram (CFD)

  • Used in Kanban to visualizes and identify trends and bottlenecks / waste of the project
  • Plot the features (completed, WIP and total) against time
  • Visualize the Little’s Law in the WIP portion
  • CFD can be plotted in more details by plotting the activities completed by individuals / teams
    • The slope indicates the rate of progress
    • declining slope indicates bottleneck (below the widening band)

Theory of Constrains (TOC)

  • Changes to most of the variables in an organization usually have only small impacts on global performance
  • Need to find out the few variables that bring about significant changes
  • Question 3 of daily stand up / daily Scrum addresses this theory by asking for any roadblocks that impediment progress



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